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Ferric chloride

Basic information Physical properties Uses Production Methods Safety Related Supplier
Ferric chloride Basic information
Ferric chloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:304 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:316 °C
  • Density 2,804 g/cm3
  • vapor density 5.61 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 194 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D1.414
  • Flash point:316°C
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility H2O: soluble
  • form powder
  • color Yellow
  • Specific Gravity2.804
  • PH1 (200g/l, H2O, 20℃)
  • Water Solubility 920 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Sensitive Hygroscopic
  • Merck 14,4019
  • Stability:Stable. Very sensitive to moisture. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents; forms explosive mixtures with sodium, potassium. Hygroscopic.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7705-08-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceFerric chloride(7705-08-0)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemFerric chloride (7705-08-0)
Safety Information
Ferric chloride Usage And Synthesis
  • Physical propertiesDark brown hexagonal crystals; hygroscopic; density 2.898g/cm3; melts at 306°C; decomposes at 315°C; highly soluble in water (74.4g/100g water at 0°C); very soluble in alcohol, ether and acetone. The hexahydrate is brownish-yellow crystalline mass; deliquesces; melts at 37°C; vaporizes around 280°C; highly soluble in water (92g/100g water at 20°C); very soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, ether and acetone.
  • UsesIron(III) chloride occurs naturally as the mineral molysite. The compound is widely used to prepare a number of iron(III) salts. Also, it is applied in sewage and industrial waste treatment processes. It also is used in the manufacture of dyes, pigments and inks; as a chlorinating agent; and as a catalyst in chlorination reactions of aromatics.
  • Production MethodsIron(III) chloride forms passing chlorine gas over iron filings at 350°C:
    2Fe + 3Cl2 → 2FeCl3
    It also forms heating iron(III) oxide with HCl at elevated temperatures:
    Fe2O3 + 6HCl → 2FeCl3 + 3H2O
    The product may be sublimed in a stream of chlorine to give high purity grade iron(III) chloride.
    The anhydrous chloride also may be made by heating the hexahydrate, FeCl3•6H2O, with thionyl chloride:
    FeCl3•6H2O + 6SOCl2 → FeCl3 + 12HCl + SO2
  • DescriptionFerric chloride (iron(IH)chloride, FeCl3, CAS No. 7705-08-0) may be prepared from iron and chlorine or from ferric oxide and hydrogen chloride. The pure material occurs as hydroscopic, hexagonal, dark crystals. Ferric chloride hexahydrate (iron(III)chloride hexahydrate, FeCl3*6H2O, CAS No. 10025-77-1) is readily formed when ferric chloride is exposed to moisture.
  • Chemical PropertiesFerric chloride,FeCl3, is a brown crystalline solid and is soluble in water,alcohol,and glycerol. It is also known as anhydrous ferric chloride,ferric trichloride, Flores martis,and iron chloride. Ferric chloride is used as a coagulant for sewage and industrial wastes, as an oxidizing and chlorinating agent,as a disinfectant, in copper etching, and as amordant. In addition, this compound is employed in the ferric chloride test,which is used to assess the relative corrosion resistance of stainless and nickel-base alloys. The ferric chloride test has been shown to be an appropriate measure of the suitability of such alloys for service in paper mill bleach plants and seawater.
  • Chemical PropertiesFerric Chloride is a black-brown, dark-green, or black crystalline solid.
  • UsesTreatment of sewage and industrial wastes; etching agent for engraving, photography, and printed circuitry; condensation catalyst in FriedelCrafts reactions; mordant; oxidizing, chlorinating, and condensing agent; disinfectant; pigment; feed additive; wat
  • UsesFerric Chloride is a nutrient and dietary supplement that serves as a source of iron.
  • General DescriptionFerric chloride is an orange to brown-black solid. Ferric chloride is slightly soluble in water. Ferric chloride is noncombustible. When wet Ferric chloride is corrosive to aluminum and most metals. Pick up and remove spilled solid before adding water. Ferric chloride is used to treat sewage, industrial waste, to purify water, as an etching agent for engraving circuit boards, and in the manufacture of other chemicals.
  • Air & Water ReactionsVery hygroscopic. Slightly water soluble, where a 0.1M solution has a pH of 2.0.
  • Reactivity ProfileAlkali metal hydroxides, acids, anhydrous chlorides of iron, tin, and aluminum, pure oxides of iron and aluminum, and metallic potassium are some of the catalysts that may cause ethylene oxide to rearrange and polymerize, liberating heat, [J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 68:179(1949)]. Explosions occur , although infrequently, from the combination of ethylene oxide and alcohols or mercaptans, [Chem. Eng. News 20:1318(1942)]. Allyl chloride may polymerize violently under conditions involving an acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, Ferric chloride, aluminum chloride, Lewis acids, and Ziegler type catalysts (initiators), [Ventrone (1971)].
  • HazardToxic by ingestion, strong irritant to skin and tissue.
  • Health HazardInhalation of dust may irritate nose and throat. Ingestion causes irritation of mouth and stomach. Dust irritates eyes. Prolonged contact with skin causes irritation and burns.
  • Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating hydrogen chloride fumes may form in fire.
  • Industrial usesFerric chloride (FeCl3) is obtained by an iron chlorination method at a temperature of 600–700 °C. Very limited data are available on the use of ferric chloride in the mineral processing industry. Ferric chloride has a depressing effect on barite and can be used in barite–celestite separation. It was also evaluated as a depressant during niobium– zirconium separation. In general, ferric and ferrous compounds are not selective depressants and in many cases are detrimental for flotation of oxidic and industrial minerals as in the case of anionic flotation, fatty acid, iron complexes or oleate iron complexes.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion and intravenous routes. Experimental reproductive effects. Corrosive. Probably an eye, skin, and mucous membrane irritant. Mutation data reported. Reacts with water to produce toxic and corrosive fumes. Catalyzes potentially explosive polymerization of ethylene oxide, chlorine + monomers (e.g., styrene). Forms shock sensitive explosive mixtures with some metals (e.g., potassium, sodium). Violent reaction with all$ chloride. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of HCl.
  • Potential ExposureIron chloride is used to treat sewage and industrial waste. It is also used as an etchant for photo engraving and rotogravure; in textiles; photography; as a disinfectant; as a feed additive.
  • ShippingUN1773 Ferric chloride, anhydrous, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material. UN2582 Ferric chlo ride, solution, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material
  • Purification MethodsSublime it at 200o in an atmosphere of chlorine. It is an “iron-black” coloured powder with green irridescence. Store it in a weighing bottle inside a desiccator as it absorbs moisture from air to form the yellow hexahydrate (see next entry). [Tarr Inorg Synth III 191 1950, Pray Inorg Synth V 153 1957, Epperson Inorg Synth VII 163 1963.]
  • Structure and conformationThe crystalline solid has a semicovalent layer structure with hexagonal packing of chloride ions, each iron atom being surrounded octahedrally by six chlorines in a BiI3 type structure. The dimers in the vapour phase have a structure similar to that of Al2Cl6 with the iron atoms surrounded by chlorines in a roughly tetrahedral fashion. The magnetic properties of iron(III) chloride in its different environments have been investigated extensively. The magnetic moment at 290°K is 5-73 B.M. and is independent of the field strength. In aqueous hydrochloric acid the room temperature moment is 5-94 B.M. and the hexahydrate has a similar moment (5-95 B.M.).
  • IncompatibilitiesAqueous solutions are a strong acid. Violent reaction with bases, allyl chloride; sulfuric acid; water. Shock- and friction-sensitive explosive material forms with potassium, sodium and other active metals. Attacks metals when wet.
  • Waste DisposalNeutralize with lime or soda ash and bury in an approved landfill.
Ferric chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials
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