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Zirconium dioxide

Basic information Oral Biomaterials Uses Safety Related Supplier
Zirconium dioxide Basic information
Zirconium dioxide Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:2700 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:5000 °C(lit.)
  • Density 5.89 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • Flash point:5000°C
  • solubility insoluble
  • form powder
  • color White
  • Specific Gravity5.89
  • PH4-5
  • Water Solubility insoluble
  • Merck 14,10180
  • Stability:Stable.
  • CAS DataBase Reference1314-23-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceZirconium dioxide(1314-23-4)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemZirconium oxide (1314-23-4)
Safety Information
Zirconium dioxide Usage And Synthesis
  • Oral BiomaterialsCrystalline zirconium dioxide (zirconium oxide), ZrO2, called zirconia (not to be confused with zircon, which is a mineral, and Zirkon™, which is a product in the market) is manufactured for use as a white pigment from minerals by conversion to Zr(SO4)2, followed by hydrolysis. ZrO2 is used also as a refractory material (crucibles, furnace lining), and it is insoluble in water, only slightly soluble in HCl and HNO3, and, however, slowly soluble in HF upon heating with 66% H2SO4.
    Zirconium dioxide
    Zirconia is considered one of the best currently known biocompatible ceramic materials along with the metallic titanium.
    Zirconium dioxide, or zirconia, ZrO2, is the word in presentday dentistry. We may say that zirconia is a material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry for several reasons. Moreover, restorative dentistry is about adhesion promotion and about durable bonding of restorations. Zirconia has found wide applications in dental restorations, such as bridges, crowns, dental implant abutments, and full dental implant systems.
    Zirconia caught attraction due its superior mechanical properties as superior flexure strength (which is 1200 MPa compared to 1000 MPa for steel), high fracture toughness, high hardness, excellent fatigue, and damage resistance. The material is resistant to chemical attacks and does not react easily with strong acids, alkalis, or other corrosive material. Regarding its physical properties, ZrO2 is a white and opaque material that does not dissolve or react with water and other solvents. It is an excellent thermal and chemical insulator and is used in fuel cells.
  • UsesZirconium dioxide (ZrO2) as an abrasive is used to make grinding wheels and special sandpaper. It is also used in ceramic glazes, in enamels, and for lining furnaces and hightemperature molds. It resists corrosion at high temperatures, making it ideal for crucibles and other types of laboratory ware. ZrO2 is used as a "getter" to remove the last trace of air when producing vacuum tubes.
  • Chemical PropertiesHeavy, white, amorphous powder. Mohs hardness 6.5, refr index 2.2. Insoluble in water and most acids or alkalies at room temperature; soluble in nitric acid and hot concentrated hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, and sulfuric acids. Most heat resistant of commercial refractories; dielectric.
  • Chemical PropertiesZirconium dioxide is a white, amorphous powder, insoluble in water but slightly soluble in acid.
  • Physical propertiesWhite, heavy, amorphous powder or monoclinic crystals; refractive index 2.13; density 5.68 g/cm3; Mohs hardness 6.5; transforms to tetragonal structure above 1,100°C and cubic form above 1,900°C; melts at 2,710°C and vaporizes at about 4,300°C; insoluble in water; soluble in hydrofluoric acid and hot sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acids.
  • UsesZirconium oxide (ZrO2) is the most common compound of zirconium found in nature. It has many uses, including the production of heat-resistant fabrics and high-temperature electrodes and tools, as well as in the treatment of skin diseases. The mineral baddeleyite (known as zirconia or ZrO2) is the natural form of zirconium oxide and is used to produce metallic zirconium by the use of the Kroll process. The Kroll process is used to produce titanium metal as well as zirconium. The metals, in the form of metallic tetrachlorides, are reduced with magnesium metal and then heated to “red-hot” under normal pressure in the presence of a blanket of inert gas such as helium or argon.
  • UsesZirconium oxide occurs in nature as the mineral baddeleyite. The oxide has many industrial applications. It is used as a refractory material. It is used in making highly reflective glazes for ceramics, glasses, linings of metallurgical furnaces, crucibles, and laboratory equipment. The oxide is used to produce oxyhydrogen and incandescent lights. Other uses are in producing piezoelectric crystals, heat-resistant fibers, and high-frequency induction coils. The hydrous oxide is used in treating dermatitis resulting from poison ivy.
  • UsesInstead of lime for the oxyhydrogen light; with earths of the yttrium group in incandescent lighting (Nernst lamps); as pigment, abrasive; manufacture of enamels, white glass, refractory crucibles, and furnace linings.
  • PreparationZirconium oxide occurs in nature as mineral baddeleyite. Ore is mined from natural deposits and subjected to concentration and purifcation by various processes. The oxide, however, is more commonly obtained as an intermediate in recovering zirconium from zircon, ZrSiO4 (See Zirconium, Recovery).
    Also, the oxide may be prepared in the laboratory by thermal decomposition of zirconium hydroxide or zirconium carbonate:
    Zr(OH)4 → ZrO2 + 2H2O
    Zr(CO3)2 → ZrO2 + 2CO2
  • Industrial usesThere are several types of zirconia: a pure(monoclinic) oxide and a stabilized (cubic)form, and a number of variations such asyttria- and magnesia-stabilized zirconia andnuclear grades. Stabilized zirconia has a highmelting point, about 2760°C, low thermal conductivity,and is generally unaffected by oxidizingand reducing atmospheres and mostchemicals. Yttria- and magnesia-stabilized zirconiasare widely used for equipment and vesselsin contact with liquid metals. Monoclinicnuclear zirconia is used for nuclear fuel elements,reactor hardware, and related applicationswhere high purity (99.7%) is needed.Zirconia has the distinction of being an electricalinsulator at low temperatures, graduallybecoming a conductor as temperaturesincrease.
  • CarcinogenicityTo simulate the chronic alpha radiation of Thorotrast, the liver of female Wistar rats was exposed to fractionated neutron irradiation at 14-day intervals (0.2Gy per fraction) over 2 years to a total dose of 10.0Gy. Before the start of irradiation, half of the animals received 120 mL of nonradioactive Zirconotrast (ZrO2), which is comparable to Thorotrast in all other physical and chemical properties. The first liver tumor was detected 1 year after the beginning of irradiation. At the end of the life span study, the incidence of irradiated animals with liver tumors was about 40%. In the animals treated additionally with ZrO2, the incidence, time of onset, and overall number of liver tumors were nearly equal, indicating that the fractionated neutron irradiation was the exclusive cause of tumor development. The lifelong-deposited ZrO2 colloid had no influence on tumor induction or development. Histological types of benign and malignant liver tumors seen in this study were the same as those seen in animals treated with Thorotrast.
Zirconium dioxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
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