ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Organic Chemistry > Hydrocarbons and derivatives > Hydrocarbon halides > VINYL CHLORIDE
Basic information Overview Production Applications Exposure and Toxicity References Safety Related Supplier
VINYL CHLORIDE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-153.8 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:-13.4 °C(lit.)
- Density 0.911 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor pressure 3,428 at 30 °C (quoted, Standen, 1964)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:-78 °F
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility acetone/carbon disulfide, MEK, THF: soluble
- form powder
- Water Solubility <1.1g/L(25 ºC)
- Merck 13,10055
- Henry's Law Constant1.50, 1.68, 2.17, 2.65, and 2.8 at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C, respectively (EPICS, Ashworth et al.,1988)
- Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 5 ppm (～12.5 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 1 ppm (OSHA), 200 ppm (MSHA), Lowest Detection Limit (NIOSH); ceiling 5 ppm/15 min (OSHA); carcinogenicity: Recognized Human Carcinogen (ACGIH), Animal Suf- ficient Evidence, Human Sufficient Evidence (IARC), Cancer Suspect Agent (OSHA).
- Stability:Stable, but may be light sensitive. May undergo autopolymerization. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, chemically active metals, copper. Highly flammable. Severe explosion risk at concentrations of around 3%. It is reported that "large fires of this material are practically inextinguishable".
- CAS DataBase Reference75-01-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
- IARC1 (Vol. Sup 7, 97, 100F) 2012
- EPA Substance Registry SystemVinyl chloride (75-01-4)
- Hazard Codes F+,T,F
- Risk Statements 45-12-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-11
- Safety Statements 53-45-36/37-16-7
- RIDADR UN 1086 2.1
- WGK Germany 2
- RTECS KU9625000
- F 4.5-31
- DOT Classification2.1 (flammable gas)
- HazardClass 2.1
- HS Code 29032100
- Hazardous Substances Data75-01-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 in mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits (mg/l): 293.75, 390, 595, 295 by inhalation (Prodan)
VINYL CHLORIDE Usage And Synthesis
- OverviewVinyl chloride is an organochloride with the chemical formula H2C=CH-Cl (Relative molecular mass: 62.5). It is a colourless gas with a mild sweet odor. It has a boiling point: -13.4 to -13.8 degree. It is slightly soluble in water (1.1 g/L at 25 degree); soluble in ethanol and highly soluble in diethyl ether, carbon tetrachloride and benzene. It is very mainly used for the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
Figure 1 the chemical structure of vinyl chloride;
- ProductionVinyl chloride was first produced using the process of dehydrating ethylene dichloride (EDC) with alcoholic caustic potash. However, the first effective industrial process was based on the hydrochlorination of acetylene. Until the late 1940s, this process was used almost exclusively. However, as ethylene became more plentiful in the early 50’s, commercial processes were developed to produce vinyl chloride from chlorine and ethylene via EDC, namely, the balanced ethylene route. Today the balanced ethylene is responsible for well over 90% of the world’s vinyl chloride production.
The process that produces vinyl chloride from acetylene employs the use of a catalyst. Most of the time the catalyst used is mercuric chloride deposited on active carbon. In this process the feed gases are purified, dried, and mixed at the entrance to the tubular fixed bed reactors, which are packed with mercuric chloride on active carbon pellets as catalysts. Usually, a slight excess of HCl is used over stoichiometry. “About 99% conversion of acetylene and 98% conversion of HCl are achieved. The selectivity to vinyl chloride is good – more than 98% -and the only significant side reaction is the further addition of HCl to vinyl chloride to form 1,1-dichlorethane” .
The major issue with this process is that fact that the catalyst used, mercuric chloride, is a very volatile compound. It is so volatile that much of the development work on this process has been devoted to this problem. Consequently, the acetylene route is currently of little commercial importance.
Many attempts have been made to develop a process that will use ethane to directly produce vinyl chloride. This is due to relative inexpensiveness of ethane. The major problem associated with the use of ethane is its molecular symmetry. In particular, the addition of chlorine to ethane gives rise to a wide product spectrum. “The most promising routes appear to be those based on high temperature oxychlorination that use special catalysts to achieve a worthwhile selectivity to vinyl chloride and useful major by-products such as ethylene, ethyl chloride, and EDC”. The ethylene may be chlorinated to EDC and recycled along with the ethyl chloride. Although possible, this process has not progressed beyond the conceptual stage. This is due to the fact that the oxychlorination reactor design presents a severe challenge in terms of materials of construction because the reaction temperature may go up to 500oC. At this temperature chlorine becomes very aggressive to most construction materials.
Ethylene can be converted to vinyl chloride in a single stage, i.e., without isolating the intermediate ethylene dichloride by either chlorination or oxychlorination routes, as is the case with the balanced ethylene route. Direct chlorination routes require a high temperature and a large excess of ethylene to minimize soot formation. The patent literature recommends using inert fluid beds for heat transfer and diluting gases in the feeds. Substantial amounts of vinyl chloride are formed when the oxychlorination reactor is operated above 350oC.
The common problems with the direct routes of production are poor selectivities to vinyl chloride and substantial production of chlorinated by-products, many of which have no direct commercial utility. “This has substantially hindered the industrial application of direct-conversion processes”.
- ApplicationsVinyl chloride is used primarily (> 95%) in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which comprises about 12% of the total use of plastic worldwide. The largest use of PVC is in the production of plastic piping. Other important uses are in floor coverings, consumer goods, and electrical applications and in the transport sector. About 1% of PVC is used to produce vinyl chloride/vinyl acetate copolymer. Minor uses of vinyl chloride (monomer) include the manufacture of chlorinated solvents (primarily 10000 tonnes per year of 1,1,1-trichloroethane) and the production of ethylene diamine for the manufacture of resins[2,3]. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts.
Vinyl chloride has been used in the past as a refrigerant, as an extraction solvent for heat-sensitive materials, in the production of chloroacetaldehyde, as an aerosol propellant and in drugs and cosmetic products; these uses were banned in the United States of America (USA) by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1974.
- Exposure and ToxicityThe main route of occupational exposure to vinyl chloride is by inhalation, which occurs primarily in vinyl chloride/PVC plants and in PVC-processing plants. Only few exposure measurements have been reported, but estimates from the chemical industry indicate that exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) amounted to several thousands of milligrams per cubic metre in the 1940s and 1950s, and were several hundreds of milligrams per cubic metre in the 1960s and early 1970s. After its recognition as a human carcinogen, occupational exposure standards were set at approximately 13–26 mg/m3[5–10 ppm] in most countries in the 1970s[7-9]. In vinyl-chloride production, workers may be exposed to ethylene dichloride and to catalysts such as iron (III) chloride. In PVC production, concurrent exposure to PVC-dust may occur. The general population is potentially exposed to vinyl chloride through inhalation of contaminated air, ingestion of contaminated drinking-water and foods, or dermal contact with consumer products. However, the exposure levels for the majority of the population are very low.
Acute and chronic effects
Acute exposure of humans to high levels of vinyl chloride via inhalation in humans can result in effects on the CNS, such as dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, and giddiness.[4,11] It is also slightly irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract in humans.[4,11] Acute exposure to extremely high levels of vinyl chloride has caused loss of consciousness, lung and kidney irritation, and inhibition of blood clotting in humans and cardiac arrhythmias in animals.
Chronic effects may include liver damage and a set of symptoms termed "vinyl chloride disease," which is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (fingers blanch and numbness and discomfort are experienced upon exposure to the cold), changes in the bones at the end of the fingers, joint and muscle pain, and scleroderma-like skin changes (thickening of the skin, decreased elasticity, and slight edema).[4,11] Chronic effects may also include CNS effects (including dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue, headache, visual and/or hearing disturbances, memory loss, and sleep disturbances) as well as peripheral nervous system symptoms (peripheral neuropathy, tingling, numbness, weakness, and pain in fingers) have also been reported in workers exposed to vinyl chloride.
EPA has classified vinyl chloride as a Group a, human carcinogen. Inhaled vinyl chloride has been shown to increase the risk of a rare form of liver cancer (angiosarcoma of the liver) in humans.[1,2,6] Animal studies have shown that vinyl chloride, via inhalation, increases the incidence of angiosarcoma of the liver and cancer of the liver.[4,11,12]
- “Vinyl Chloride Polymers” Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering. 1989 ed.
- WHO (1999). Vinyl Chloride (Environmental Health Criteria 215). Geneva: World Health Organization
- European Commission (2003). Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPP C). Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Large Volume Organic Chemical Industry. Luxembourg.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride (Update). Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1997.
- IARC (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC Monographs volumes 1 to 42. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum Suppl, 7: 1–440. PMID: 3482203
- IARC (1974). Some anti-thyroid and related substances, nitrofurans and industrial chemical. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Man, 7: 1–326.
- NTP (2005). Vinyl Chloride Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition. Rep Carcinog, 11: 1–A32. PMID:19826456
- IARC (2008). 1,3-Butadiene, ethylene oxide and vinyl halides (vinyl fluoride, vinyl chloride and vinyl bromide). IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum, 97: 1–510. PMID: 20232717.
- Fleig I & Thiess A M (1974). Chromosome tests in vinyl chloride exposed workers] (Ger.). Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Praventivmedizin, 12: 280–283
- Casula D, Cherchi P, Spiga G, Spinazzola A (1977). Environmental dust in a plant for the production of polyvinyl chloride Ann Ist Super Sanita, 13: 189–198. PMID: 603117
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Case Studies in Environmental Medicine. Vinyl Chloride Toxicity. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1990.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables. FY1997 Update. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH. 1997.
- DescriptionVinyl chloride is a colorless, flammable gas
with a sweet ethereal odor. It is shipped as a
liquefied compressed gas. Contact of the liquid
with the skin can result in freezing or frostbite.
Vinyl chloride has been established as a human
carcinogen. In addition, acute effects of vinyl
chloride exposure include irritation of the skin
and eyes on contact. Inhalation of concentrations of more than 500 ppm produces mild anesthesia.
Anhydrous vinyl chloride does not corrode metals at normal temperatures and pressures, but in the presence of moisture and elevated temperatures, vinyl chloride accelerates the corrosion of iron and steel at elevated temperatures. Vinyl chloride polymerizes readily when exposed to air, sunlight, heat, or oxygen, although it is chemically stable as shipped with an inhibitor (phenol).
- Chemical PropertiesVinyl chloride is a flammable gas at room temperature, and is usually encountered as a cooled liquid. The colorless liquid forms a vapor which has a pleasant, ethereal odor. The odor threshold is variously given as 260 ppm, 3,000 ppm (NJ fact sheet), 4000 ppm (NY fact sheet) in air and 3.4 ppm in water (EPA Toxicological profile). Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.
- Physical propertiesColorless, liquefied compressed gas with a faint, sweetish odor
- UsesVinyl chloride is used as a monomer inthe manufacture of polyvinyl chloride resinsand plastics, as a refrigerant, and in organicsynthesis.
- UsesIn the plastics industry to manufacture of polyvinyl chloride; in organic syntheses. Has been used as refrigerant, spray can propellant.
- UsesVinyl chloride is polymerized in various ways to polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It is also copolymerized with various other monomers to make a variety of useful resins.
- Production MethodsVC was first synthesized in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault in the laboratory of Justus von Liebig. Industrial production of VC began in 1930s. Ninety-eight percent is used for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production and the remaining 2% for polyvinylidene chloride and chlorinated solvents. The most common method for the production ofVC monomer is based on cracking ethylene dichloride. Over 95% of VC produced worldwide in 2006 was made by this method. A less common method is by hydrochlorination of acetylene. VC has been produced commercially in the United States for over 70 years.
- Production MethodsVinyl Chloride is produced by alkaline dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride, or by thermal cracking of EDC, or 1,1-dichloroethane.
- DefinitionChEBI: A monohaloethene that is ethene in which one of the hydrogens has been replaced by a chloro group.
- General DescriptionA colorless gas with a sweet odor. Easily ignited. Shipped as a liquefied gas under own vapor pressure. Contact with the unconfined liquid may cause frostbite by evaporative cooling. Leaks may be liquid or vapor. Vapors are heavier than air. May asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. Suspected carcinogen. Used to make plastics, adhesives, and other chemicals.
- Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Forms polymeric peroxides that are explosive [Bretherick 1979. p. 164].
- Reactivity ProfileVINYL CHLORIDE is peroxidizable. Forms explosive polymeric peroxides in contact with air (in the presence of any of a variety of catalysts) [Bretherick 1979. p. 164]. Long storage in contact with air increases the concentration of the polyperoxides to hazardous levels [MCA Case History 1551. 1969]. The peroxides may initiate exothermic polymerization of the remaining material [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980.p. 958; Bretherick 1979. p. 160]. Light-sensitive. Many oxidizing agents apparently initiate polymerization (oxides of nitrogen, O2, etc.). May react with very hot water or steam to produce toxic fumes.
- HazardThe vapor density is 2.16, which is heavier than air. It is toxic by inhalation, ingestion, and skin absorption. Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen. The TLV is 5 ppm in air. The four-digit UN identification number is 1086. The NFPA 704 designation is health 2, flammability 4, and reactivity 2; uninhibited, the values would be higher for reactivity. The primary uses are in making polyvinyl chloride and as an additive in plastics.
- Health HazardThe acute inhalation toxicity is of low order.Since it is a gas, the route of exposure isprimarily inhalation. The target organs arethe liver, central nervous system, respiratorysystem, and blood. Exposure to high concen trations can produce narcosis. A 30-minuteexposure to 30% vinyl chloride in air wasfatal to experimental animals. Chronic expo sure produced minor injury to the liver andkidneys. Such effects were noted at a 7-hourexposure daily to 200 ppm for 6 months.
Vinyl chloride is an animal and humancarcinogen. Rats subjected to 12 months’inhalation developed tumors of the lungs,skin, and bones. Occupational exposure tothis compound demonstrated an increasedincidence of liver cancer. Tabershaw andGaffey (1974) conducted epidemiologicalstudies on workers who had at least 1 year ofoccupational exposure to vinyl chloride. Thestudy indicated that cancers of the digestivesystem, respiratory system, and brain, as wellas lymphomas, were greater among peoplewho had the greatest estimated exposure tovinyl chloride.
- Fire HazardFlammable gas; heavier than air, density
2.2 (air=D 1), flame propagation and flash back fire hazard if the container is placed
near a source of ignition; autoignition tem perature 472°C (882°F); polymerization may
occur at elevated temperatures, which may
cause possible rupture of containers; fire extinguishing measure: stop the flow of gas;
water may be used to keep fire-exposed
containers cool. Vinyl chloride may decom pose under fire conditions, producing the
toxic gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen
Vinyl chloride forms explosive mixtures with air in a wide range; the LEL and UEL values are 3.6% and 33.0% by volume in air, respectively. It may undergo oxidation by atmospheric oxygen, producing an unstable polyperoxide that may explode (MCA 1969). Such a reaction is catalyzed by a variety of contaminants.
- Materials UsesSteel is recommended for all piping, storage
tanks, and equipment used with vinyl chloride.
However, at elevated temperatures, vinyl chloride in the presence of moisture speeds its corrosion. Stainless steel is also an acceptable material to use with vinyl chloride. Copper and
copper alloys must not be used. Valves in vinyl
chloride service must not contain copper or
copper alloys. Acetylene may be present as an
impurity in vinyl chloride and can form an explosive acetyl ide when exposed to copper.
Asbestos, Teflon, lead, and carbon are satisfactory gasket materials for fittings and connections.
- Safety ProfileConfirmed human carcinogen producing liver and blood tumors. Moderately toxic by ingestion. Experimental teratogenic data. Experimental reproductive effects. Human reproductive effects by inhalation: changes in spermato- genesis. Human mutation data reported. A severe irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Causes skin burns by rapid evaporation and consequent freezing. In high concentration it acts as an anesthetic. Chronic exposure has produced liver injury. Circulatory and bone changes in the fingertips have been reported in workers handling unpolymerized materials.A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, or oxidzers. Large fires of ths material are practically inextinguishable. A severe explosion hazard in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Long-term exposure to air may result in formation of peroxides that can initiate explosive polymerization of the chloride. Can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Can explode on contact with oxides of nitrogen. Obtain instructions for its use from the supplier before storing or handling ths material. To fight fire, stop flow of gas. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC.
- Potential ExposureVinyl chloride is used as a vinyl monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (vinyl chloride homopolymer) and other copolymer resins. It is also used as a chemical intermediate and as a solvent.
- Physiological effectsVinyl chloride is toxic and carcinogenic.
ACGIH recommends a Threshold Limit ValueTime-Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 5
ppm (13 mg/m3) for vinyl chloride. The TLV-TWA is the time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8-hour workday and a 40-hour
workweek, to which nearly all workers may be
repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect.
OSHA lists an 8-hour Time-Weighted Average-Permissible Exposure Limit (TWA-PEL) of 1 ppm for vinyl chloride. TWA-PEL is the exposure limit that shall not be exceeded by the 8-hour TWAin any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour workweek. Additionally, there shall not be exposure to concentrations greater than 5 ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes. A complete standard describing control of employee exposure to vinyl chloride as required by OSHA is given in 29 CFR 1910.1017.
Vinyl chloride acts as a general anesthetic in concentrations over 500 ppm. It has been reported that acute exposures to vinyl chloride concentrations above 1000 ppm slowly produce mild disturbances such as drowsiness, blurred vision, staggering gait, and tingling and numbness in the feet and hands. The occurrence of acro-osteolysis and hepatic angiosarcoma have been associated with vinyl chloride exposure. Liver changes including hepatomegaly, liver function abnormalities, and parenchymal damage have been reported.
Vinyl chloride can irritate or damage the eyes on contact. Liquid vinyl chloride also irritates the skin and can freeze the skin on prolonged contact.
- CarcinogenicityVinyl chloride is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans.
- SourceVinyl chloride in soil and/or groundwater may form from the biotransformation of 1,1,1-
trichloroethane (Lesage et al., 1990), trichloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethylene (Smith and Dragun,
1984; Wilson et al., 1986), and from the chemical reduction of trichloroethylene by zero-valent
iron (Orth and Gillham, 1996).
Drinking water standard (final): MCLG: zero; MCL: 2 μg/L (U.S. EPA, 2000).
- Environmental FateBiological. Under anaerobic or aerobic conditions, degradation to carbon dioxide was reported
in experimental systems containing mixed or pure cultures (Vogel et al., 1987). The anaerobic
degradation of vinyl chloride dissolved in groundwater by static microcosms was enhanced by the
presence of nutrients (methane, methanol, ammonium phosphate, phenol). Methane and ethylene
were reported as the biodegradation end products (Barrio-Lage et al., 1990). When vinyl chloride
(1 mM) was incubated with resting cells of Pseudomonas sp (0.1 g/L) in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer
at pH 7.4, hydroxylation of the C-Cl bond occurred yielding acetaldehyde and chloride ions.
Oxidation at both the methyl and carbonyl carbons produced acetic acid and hydroxyacetaldehyde,
which underwent oxidation to give glycolic acid (hydroxyacetic acid). The acid was oxidized to
carbon dioxide (Castro et al., 1992).
Surface Water. In natural surface waters, vinyl chloride was resistant to biological and chemical degradation (Hill et al., 1976).
Groundwater. Under aerobic conditions, >99% vinyl chloride degraded in shallow groundwater after 108 d and 65% was completely mineralized (Davis and Carpenter, 1990).
Photolytic. Irradiation of vinyl chloride in the presence of nitrogen dioxide for 160 min produced formic acid, HCl, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ozone, and trace amounts of formyl chloride and nitric acid. In the presence of ozone, however, vinyl chloride photooxidized to carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, and small amounts of HCl (Gay et al., 1976). Reported photooxidation products in the troposphere include hydrogen chloride and/or formyl chloride (U.S. EPA, 1985). In the presence of moisture, formyl chloride will decompose to carbon monoxide and HCl (Morrison and Boyd, 1971). Vinyl chloride reacts rapidly with OH radicals in the atmosphere. Based on a reaction rate of 6.6 x 10-12 cm3/molecule?sec, the estimated half-life for this reaction at 299 K is 1.5 d (Perry et al., 1977). Vinyl chloride reacts also with ozone and NO3 in the gas-phase. Sanhueza et al. (1976) reported a rate constant of 6.5 x 10-21 cm3/molecule?sec for the reaction with OH radicals in air at 295 K. Atkinson et al. (1988) reported a rate constant of 4.45 x 10-16 cm3/molecule?sec for the reaction with NO3 radicals in air at 298 K.
Chemical/Physical. In a laboratory experiment, it was observed that the leaching of a vinyl chloride monomer from a polyvinyl chloride pipe into water reacted with chlorine to form chloroacetaldehyde, chloroacetic acid, and other unidentified compounds (Ando and Sayato, 1984).
- storageVinyl chloride should be used in a
well-ventilated area, preferably using a hood
with forced ventilation. Some authorities believe that the odor of vinyl chloride does not
provide adequate warning of its presence in
concentrations sufficient to produce dizziness
and unconsciousness, so special caution is urged
against leaks and poor ventilation.
Precautions required for the safe handling of all flammable gas must be observed with vinyl chloride. Adequate electrical grounding of all lines and equipment, and ditching or diking in storage tank areas to control the liquid in the event of vessel rupture are among recommended precautions. Ditching is preferable because the material should not be retained at a location directly beneath or surrounding the storage tanks. Installations must be designed to comply with requirements for unfired pressure vessels and all state, provincial, and local regulations. Personnel handling vinyl chloride should wear safety shoes, chemical safety goggles or a full face shield, and rubber gloves. An effective educational and training program must be instituted to inform the workers of the hazards involved in handling and using vinyl chloride and the first aid measures to be followed in the event of an emergency. For specific OSHA requirements, refer to 29 CFR 1910.1017.
For respiratory protection, SCBA, air-line cartridge-type respirators, and U.S. Bureau of Mines or NIOSH approved canister-type, cartridge-type respirators should be available in emergencies. Instant-acting safety showers and eyewash fountains should be conveniently located near the site ofthe operation.
Store and use cylinders of vinyl chloride in well-ventilated areas away from heat and all sources of ignition such as flames and sparks. Do not use vinyl chloride around sparking motors or other equipment that is not explosion-proof equipment. Do not store reserve cylinder stocks of vinyl chloride with cylinders containing oxygen, chlorine, or other highly oxidizing or combustible materials.
- ShippingUN1086 Vinyl chloride, stabilized, Hazard Class: 2.1; Labels: 2.1-Flammable gas. Cylinders must be transported in a secure upright position, in a well-ventilated truck. Protect cylinder and labels from physical damage. The owner of the compressed gas cylinder is the only entity allowed by federal law (49CFR) to transport and refill them. It is a violation of transportation regulations to refill compressed gas cylinders without the express written permission of the owner.
- Toxicity evaluationThe mechanisms of toxicity for noncancer effects of VC have
not been completely determined.
It is hypothesized that VC is metabolized to the reactive metabolites 2-chloroethylene oxide and, subsequently, 2-chloroacetaldehyde via mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), whose activity is primarily concentrated in the liver. The presence of the reactive 2-chloroacetaldehyde results in protein adduction, which interferes with normal cellular function, resulting in cytotoxicity. This is consistent with the progression of effects from hypertrophy to fatty changes, hyperplasia, and necrosis. Indications of binding to proteins such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) in occupationally exposed individuals show immune responses including B-cell proliferation, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and complement activation and increased circulating immune complexes. It has been hypothesized that cardiac arrhythmia reported after VC exposure may result from sensitization of the heart to circulatory catecholamines, as occurs with other halogenated hydrocarbons.
VC is a known human and animal carcinogen including both increased incidence of hepatic angiosarcomas and hepatotoxicity. It is thought that the mechanism for these liver effects is that VC is metabolized by MFO to form an epoxide intermediate, 2-chloroethylene oxide, which rearranges to form 2-chloroacetaldehyde. These reactive metabolites are transported from parenchymal cells to the nonparenchymal cells forming four primary DNA adducts which produce base–pair transitions during transcription and DNA cross-links. Such mutations can result in the mutation of ras oncogenes and the p53 tumor suppressor gene which are found in VC-exposed individuals.
The metabolism of VC to highly reactive metabolites, the observance of DNA adduction in mechanistic studies, and the observed carcinogenicity resulting from a single, high-level inhalation exposure in animals suggest that the primary mechanism of VC carcinogenicity involves direct DNA interactions rather than secondary responses to cytotoxicity.
- IncompatibilitiesCopper, oxidizers, aluminum, peroxides, iron, steel. Polymerizes in air, sunlight, heat, and on contact with a catalyst, strong oxidizers; and metals, such as aluminum and copper unless stabilized by inhibitors, such as phenol. Attacks iron and steel in presence of moisture.
- Waste DisposalReturn refillable compressed gas cylinders to supplier. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform to EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assured to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. A variety of techniques have been described for vinyl chloride recovery from PVC latexes.
- GRADES AVAILABLEVinyl chloride is available for commercial and industrial use in various grades having much the same composition from one producer to another. It typically has a minimum purity of 99.9 mole percent in the liquid phase.
VINYL CHLORIDE Preparation Products And Raw materials
- VINYL CHLORIDE-METHYL ACRYLATE LATEX VINYL CHLORIDE IN NITROGEN (10PPM) 48L DETECTING TUBE FOR DETERMIN.OF VINYL CHLORIDE 5/B (0,5-5 PPM;5-30 PPM) FLUOROTRICHLOROETHYLENE VINYL CHLORIDE IN NITROGEN (1000PPM) 48L VINYL CHLORIDE SOLUTION 100UG/ML IN METHANOL 1ML POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE-CO-1-METHYL-4-VINYL& POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE-CO-1-METHYL-4-VINYLPIPERAZINE) VINYL CHLORIDE IN NITROGEN (1000PPM) 14L VINYL CHLORIDE [1,2-14C] POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) CARBOXYLATED 1.8%& POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE-CO-HYDROXYPROPYL ACRYLATE-CO-VINYL ACETATE) ethyl 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-1-cyclopropanecarboxylate TETRACHLOROCYCLOPROPENE 4,4'-DDE 2-CHLORO-2-BUTENE 2,3-DICHLOROHEXAFLUORO-2-BUTENE 1,2,3,4-Tetrachloro-5,5-dimethoxycyclopentadiene
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