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Mercury chloride

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Mercury chloride Basic information
Mercury chloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:277 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:302 °C
  • Density 5.44
  • vapor pressure 1.3 mm Hg ( 236 °C)
  • refractive index 1.859
  • Flash point:302°C
  • storage temp. Store at RT.
  • solubility H2O: soluble
  • form powder
  • color White
  • Specific Gravity5.44
  • Water Solubility 7.4 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
  • Merck 14,5876
  • Stability:Stability Stable, but moisture sensitive and light sensitive - decomposes in sunlight. Incompatible with strong acids, ammonia, carbonates, metallic salts, alkalies, phosphites, phosphates, sulfites, sulfates, arsenic, antimony, bromides.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7487-94-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceMercury dichloride(7487-94-7)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemMercuric chloride (7487-94-7)
Safety Information
MSDS
Mercury chloride Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionMercury is found in trace amounts in the air, but the largest deposits on earth are as cinnabar (mercuric sulfide). It exists in several forms such as a liquid metal (quicksilver), as a vapor, and in compounds (organic and inorganic). Mercury has been used as a medicine, to make amalgams, and in many industrial applications. Exposure to mercury can be toxic in any of its forms, in any route (ingestion, skin contact, and inhalation) depending on the dose and duration of exposure. Thermometers, ‘button’ batteries, the new energy-saving fluorescent light bulbs, and many seafood (shellfish, tuna, marlin, and many others) contain mercury, and are, therefore, potential sources of mercury poisoning. The primary intracellular target of mercury is the sulfhydryl groups in many tissue enzymes and proteins. Binding of –SH– groups paralyzes vital functions, eventually causing failure of organ systems such as the lungs, kidneys, or the nervous system.
    Industrial disasters cause release of mercury or methylmercury into the environment. The classic example of such a disaster is the contamination of Minamata Bay in Japan, where the term Minamata disease originated. Studies from about 1956 to 1960 suggested the unusual symptoms (neurological) found in people in this area was traced back to industrial wastewater containing methylmercury. Nearly 2200 people were diagnosed and over 1700 deaths were eventually attributed to methylmercury poisoning. Mercury has been used in skin creams; the most recent problem cream was identified in 1996 from Mexico named ‘Crèma de Belleza-Manning.’ Mercury poisoning can be caused by all forms of mercury (elemental, vapor, inorganic, and organic).
  • Chemical PropertiesMercury bichloride is an odorless white crystalline solid.
  • Chemical PropertiesMercuric chloride,HgC12, is white crystals that are soluble in water and alcohol that melt at 276℃ and boil at 302℃. Highly toxic and corrosive, it is used in the manufacture of mercury compounds, in organic synthesis, as a reagent and catalyst, as a fungicide, insecticide, and wood preservative, and for many other purposes.
  • UsesPreserving (kyanizing) wood and anatomical specimens; also embalming; disinfecting; browning and etching steel and iron; intensifier in photography; white reserve in fabric printing; tanning leather; electroplating aluminum; depolarizer for dry batteries; freeing gold from lead; magic photograms; mordant for rabbit and beaver furs; staining wood and vegetable ivory pink; manufacture of ink for mercurography; treating seed potatoes; manufacture of other mercury Compounds. As an important reagent In animal chemistry.
  • UsesMercuric chloride is used in tanning leather; intensifier in photography; topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
  • UsesMercuric chloride is used in preservatives for wood and anatomical specimens, embalming solutions, disinfectants, photographic intensifiers, leather tanning, seed treatments, analytical reagents for organic syntheses, and the manufacture of other mercury-containing compounds. Pharmaceuticals containing mercuric chloride have also been used therapeutically as topical antiseptics and disinfectants.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A mercury coordination entity made up of linear triatomic molecules in which a mercury atom is bonded to two chlorines. Water-soluble, it is highly toxic. Once used in a wide variety of applications, including preserving wood and anatomical specimens, emba ming and disinfecting, as an intensifier in photography, as a mordant for rabbit and beaver furs, and freeing gold from lead, its use has markedly declined as less toxic alternatives have been developed.
  • General DescriptionAn odorless white crystalline solid. Density 5.4 g / cm3. Melting point 277°C. Slightly volatile at ordinary temperatures. Can be sublimed unchanged. Corrosive to the mucous membranes. Toxic by inhalation (dusts, etc.), ingestion, and skin absorption. Used in photography, disinfectants, wood preservatives, fungicides.
  • Air & Water ReactionsSlightly soluble in water.
  • Reactivity ProfileMercury chloride is decomposed by sunlight. Incompatible with formates sulfites, phpophosphites, phosphates, sulfides, albumin, gelatin, alkalis, alkaloid salts, ammonia, lime water, antimony, arsenic, bromides, borax, carbonates, reduced iron, iron, copper, lead and silver salts, infusions of cinchona, oak bark or senna, tannic acids and vegetable astringents. .
  • HazardToxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; a poison.
  • Health HazardMercury chloride is classified as extremely toxic. All forms of mercury are poisonous if absorbed. Probable oral lethal dose is 5-50 mg/kg; between 7 drops and 1 teaspoonful for a 150 lb. person. Mercury chloride is one of the most toxic salts of mercury. Material attacks the gastrointestinal tract and renal systems.
  • Fire HazardMaterial may explode on heating, with friction, or contact with alkali metals, sulfides, acetylene, ammonia, and oxalic acid. Upon decomposition highly toxic chloride and mercury fumes are emitted. Avoid formates, sulfites, hypophosphites, phosphates, sulfides, albumin, gelatin, alkalies, alkaloid salts, ammonia, lime water, antimony, arsenic, bromides, borax, carbonates, reduced iron, copper, iron, lead, silver salts, infusions of cinchona, columbo, oak bark or senna, and tannic acid. Mercury chloride may explode with friction or application of heat. Mixtures of Mercury chloride and sodium or potassium are shock sensitive and will explode on impact. Avoid contact with acids or acid fumes.
  • Safety ProfileA human poison by ingestion. Poison experimentally by ingestion, skin contact, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: respiratory obstruction, nausea or vomiting, urine volume decrease or anuria. Human reproductive effects by ingestion: terminates pregnancy. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. Questionable carcinogen. A severe eye and skin irritant. Reaction with sodmm aci-nitromethanide + acids forms the explosive mercury fulminate. Reacts violently with K, Na. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Hg.
  • Potential ExposureMercuric chloride is used as dip for bulbs and tubers; for earthworm control; as repellent to ants, roaches, etc.; in preserving wood and anatomical specimens; embalming, browning, etching steel and iron; as a catalyst for organic synthesis; disinfectant, antiseptic, tanning; textile printing aid; manufacture of dyes; in agricultural chemicals; dry batteries; pharmaceuticals, and photographic chemicals
  • Environmental FateMercury adsorbed from mercuric chloride and 2-methoxyethylmercury chloride (Aretan) solutions by three contrasting soils showed a dependence on soil–solution ratio and initial mercury (Hg) concentration in soil solution. Changing the soil–solution ratio from 1:10 to 1:100 but keeping the initial concentration constant resulted in an increase in initial concentration but, on the other hand, resulted in decrease in Hg adsorption. Upon manipulation of the pH of the surface soils, adsorption of mercuric chloride at 100 mg Hg l-1 concentration increased from ~ 70 to over 95 mg Hg kg-1 when the pH was raised from 5.0 to 8.0. Precipitation of Hg may also have contributed to this trend. Removal of organic matter from soil resulted in large reductions of Hg adsorbed, as much as 95% from the mercuric chloride solutions. Mercuric compounds found in the atmosphere are likely to be transformed by chemical or physical processes. Theoretical calculations on the photodissociation of mercuric compounds have indicated that mercuric chloride and mercuric cyanide are stable, while mercuric hydroxide may dissociate in the gas phase. Exchange reactions between water and mercury compounds are likely to occur in the atmosphere. These exchange reactions eventually result in the release of elemental mercury into the gaseous phase.
  • ShippingUN1624 Mercuric chloride, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
  • Purification MethodsIt is soluble in EtOH and is extracted into Et2O from an aqueous solution. It is very POISONOUS and 0.2-0.4g is fatal. The antidote is immediate administration of white of egg as an emetic.
  • Toxicity evaluationA reference from Middle Ages in Goldwater’s book on mercury describes oral ingestion of mercury as causing severe abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and suppression of urine. This is an accurate report of the effects following accidental or suicidal ingestion of mercuric chloride. Injection of mercuric chloride produces necrosis of the epithelium of the pars recta kidney. Cellular changes include fragmentation and disruption of the plasma membrane and its appendages, vesiculation and disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum and other cytoplasmic membranes, dissociation of polysomes and loss of ribosomes, mitochondrial swelling and loss of amorphous intramatrical deposits, and condensation of nuclear chromatin. Although exposure to a high dose of mercuric chloride is directly toxic to renal tubular lining cells, chronic low-dose exposure may induce an immunologic glomerular disease. This form of chronic mercury injury to the kidney is clinically the most common form of mercury-induced nephropathy. Experimental studies have shown that the pathogenesis of chronic mercury nephropathy has two phases: an early phase characterized by anti-basement membrane glomerular nephritis followed by a superimposed immune complex glomerulonephritis with transiently raised concentrations of circulating immune complexes.
  • IncompatibilitiesA strong reducing agent; keep away from oxidizers. Mercuric chloride may explode with friction or application on heat. Mixtures of mercuric chloride and sodium or potassium are shock sensitive and will explode on impact. Avoid contact with acids or acid fumes. Also avoid the presence of formats, sulfites, hypophosphites, phosphates, sulfide; albumin, gelatin, alkalies, alkaloid salts; ammonia, lime water; antimony, arsenic, bromides, borax, carbonates, reduced iron, copper; iron, lead, silver salts; infusions of cinchona; columbo, oak bark or senna; and tannic acid
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