- Melting point:-22 °C
- Boiling point:121 °C(lit.)
- Density 1622.69±0.01 kg/m3 at 20 °C (range 10-50°C)
- vapor density 5.83 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 13 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:120-121°C
- storage temp. 0-6°C
- solubility water: soluble0.15g/L at 25°C
- form Liquid
- color APHA: ≤10
- Odorchloroform-like odor
- Odor Threshold0.77ppm
- Water Solubility Miscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene and hexane. Slightly miscible with water.
- FreezingPoint -22.0℃
- λmaxλ: 290 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 295 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 300 nm Amax: ≤0.20
λ: 305 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 350 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 400 nm Amax: 0.03
- Merck 14,9190
- BRN 1361721
- Henry's Law Constant4.97 at 1.8 °C, 15.5 at 21.6 °C, 34.2 at 40.0 °C, 47.0 at 50 °C, 68.9 at 60 °C, 117.0 at 70 °C (EPICS-GC, Shimotori and Arnold, 2003)
- Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 50 ppm (～325 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 100 ppm (MSHA and OSHA); TLV-STEL 200 ppm (ACGIH); carcinogenicity: Animal Limited Evidence.
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, alkali metals, aluminium, strong bases.
- CAS DataBase Reference127-18-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
- IARC2A (Vol. Sup 7, 63, 106) 2014
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceTetrachloroethylene(127-18-4)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemTetrachloroethylene (127-18-4)
- Hazard Codes Xn,N,T,F
- Risk Statements 40-51/53-23/25-11-39/23/24/25-23/24/25
- Safety Statements 23-36/37-61-45-24-16-7
- RIDADR UN 1897 6.1/PG 3
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS KX3850000
- Autoignition Temperature260℃
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 6.1
- PackingGroup III
- HS Code 29032300
- Hazardous Substances Data127-18-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in mice: 8.85 g/kg (Dybing); LC for mice in air: 5925 ppm (Lazarew)
- DescriptionTetrachloroethylene (chemical formula Cl2C=CCl2) is a chlorinate hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a colorless, volatile, nonflammable liquid with an ether-like odor. The major part of tetrachloroethylene is produced by high temperature chlorinolysis of light hydrocarbons.
Tetrachloroethylene is an excellent solvent for organic materials. It is volatile, highly stable, and nonflammable, and thus being widely used in dry cleaning. It can also be used to degrease metal parts in the automotive and other metalworking industries upon being mixed with other chlorocarbons. It can also be used in neutrino detectors. However, it should be noted that it is a potential carcinogen.
- Chemical PropertiesTetrachloroethylene is a clear, colorless, volatile, nonflammable liquid with an ethereal odor. Insoluble in water. Vapors heavier than air. Density approximately 13.5 lb/gal. Used as dry cleaning solvent, a degreasing solvent, a drying agent for metals, and in the manufacture of other chemicals.
- UsesTetrachloroethylene (PCE) is also known as perchloroethylene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethene and is also commonly abbreviated to PER or PERC. Tetrachloroethylene is a volatile, chlorinated organic hydrocarbon that is widely used as a solvent in the dry-cleaning and textile-processing industries and as an agent for degreasing metal parts. It is an environmental contaminant that has been detected in the air, groundwater, surface waters, and soil (NRC, 2010).
- DescriptionPerchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene) is a colourless liquid with a slightly ethereal odour. It is marginally soluble in water and soluble in most organic solvents.Perchloroethylene has a limited number of uses and applications. It is used as intermediate, as dry cleaning agent in the industrial and professional sector, as surface cleaning agent in industrial settings, as heat transfer medium in industrial settings, and in film cleaning and copying by professionals. It is also used as a chemical intermediate in the production of fluorinated compounds and in industrial surface cleaning metal degreasing. Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene is possible in the manufacturing facilities or the industrial facilities where it is used as an intermediate.
- Chemical PropertiesTetrachloroethylene is a clear, colorless, nonflammable liquid with a characteristic odor. The odor is noticeable @ 47 ppm, though after a short period it may become inconspicuous, thereby becoming an unreliable warning signal. The Odor Threshold is variously given as 5 ppm to 6.17 (3M).
- Physical propertiesClear, colorless, nonflammable liquid with a chloroform or sweet, ethereal odor. Odor threshold concentration is 4.68 ppmv (Leonardos et al., 1969). The average least detectable odor threshold concentrations in water at 60 °C and in air at 40 °C were 0.24 and 2.8 mg/L, respectively (Alexander et al., 1982).
Tetrachloroethylene is used as a solvent, indrycleaning, and in metal degreasing.Tetrachloroethylene is a common industrial solvent that is often found as a contaminant in groundwater. Tetrachloroethylene is also a suspected carcinogen to humans and is difficult to degrade biologically as it has no natural source. This compound is a contaminant of emerging concern (CECs).
- UsesDry cleaning; textile processing; degreasing metals; solvent; chemical intermediate in production of fluorocarbons. Insulating fluid and cooling gas in electrical transformers.
- UsesFeatures high transparancy in the MIR region and is a less toxic alternative to CCl4 in IR spectroscopy.
- DefinitionChEBI: A chlorocarbon that is tetrachloro substituted ethene.
- Production MethodsPCE was first prepared in 1821 and commercial production in the United States began in 1925. Several commercial grades are available that differ in the amount and type of added stabilizers (e.g., amines, phenols, and epoxides). There are currently three U.S. producers with a combined capacity of 355 million lb. Chem Sources listed in 2001 37 current U.S. suppliers. Oral doses of about 60–86 mg/kg were given when PCE was used as an anthelmintic.
- Synthesis Reference(s)Journal of the American Chemical Society, 90, p. 5307, 1968 DOI: 10.1021/ja01021a065
- Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfileTetrachloroethylene decomposes upon heating and exposure to UV light to give phosgene and HCl. Reacts violently with finely dispersed light metals (aluminum) and zinc. [Handling Chemicals Safely 1980 p. 887]. Mixtures with finely divided barium or lithium metal can detonate [ASESB Pot. Incid. 39. 1968; Chem. Eng. News 46(9):38. 1968]. Decomposes very slowly in water to form trichloroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid
- Health HazardExposure to tetrachloroethylene can produceheadache, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordina tion, irritation of eyes, nose, and throat, and flushing of neck and face. Exposure to highconcentrations can produce narcotic effects.The primary target organs are the centralnervous system, mucous membranes, eyes,and skin. The kidneys, liver, and lungs areaffected to a lesser extent. Symptoms ofdepression of the central nervous system aremanifested in humans from repeated expo sure to 200 ppm for 7 hours/day. Chronicexposure to concentrations ranging from 200to 1600 ppm caused drowsiness, depression,and enlargement of the kidneys and livers inrats and guinea pigs. A 4-hour exposure to4000 ppm of vapor in air was lethal to rats.
Ingestion of tetrachloroethylene may pro duce toxic effects ranging from nausea andvomiting to somnolence, tremor, and ataxia.The oral toxicity, is low, however, with LD50ranging between 3000 and 9000 mg/kg inanimals. Skin contact with the liquid maycause defatting and dermatitis of skin.
Evidence of carcinogenicity of this com pound has been noted in test animals sub jected to inhalation or oral administration. Itcaused tumors in the blood, liver, and kidneyin rats and mice. Carcinogenicity in humansis not reported.
- Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic, irritating gases may be generated in fires.
- Industrial usesPerchloroethylene is a member of a family of aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons. It is a colorless, volatile liquid that is essentially nonflammable and has no measurable flash point. It is the primary solvent used in commercial and industrial dry cleaning. Since being introduced to the dry cleaning industry in the late 1930s, it has replaced most other solvents because of its relatively low toxicity and nonflammability. Its other major uses are as a metal cleaning and degreasing solvent, as a solvent in automotive aerosols, and as a chemical intermediate in the production of several fluorinated compounds. The use of perchloroethylene can be broken down into the following categories:
chemical intermediate (~50%)
dry cleaning/textile processing (~25%)
automotive aerosols (~10%)
metal cleaning/degreasing (-10%)
miscellaneous (-5 %)
Perchloroethylene is used as a basic raw material in the manufacture of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 134a, a popular alternative to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants. It also is used in the synthesis of hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) 123 and 124 and HFC 125.
Perchloroethylene is used by more than 80 percent of commercial dry cleaners, as well as some industrial cleaning establishments. It had replaced other synthetic solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride. The textile industry uses perchloroethylene as a spotting agent for the removal of spinning oils and lubricants. It also is used in wool scouring and as a solvent carrier in dyes and water repellents.
- Anticancer ResearchPERK, a transmembrane protein, phosphorylates eIF2-alpha which inhibits the synthesisof new proteins and folding of the existing proteins. In addition, the activatingtranscription factor 4 (ATF4) expression is selectively induced by eIF2α phosphorylation,which induces upregulation of UPR genes and growth arrest, including ERoxidoreductase1α, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP)and various pro-apoptotic factors (Quick and Faison 2012; Carreras et al. 2017).Haem-regulated eIF2α kinase and multiple kinases including protein kinase R alsoinduce eIF2α phosphorylation. The integrated stress response (ISR) is referred to assignalling related to eIF2α phosphorylation. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2)-like 2 (Nrf-2) is another substrate which upon phosphorylation dissociates fromits cytoskeletal anchor and goes and binds to antioxidant redox element (ARE) inthe nucleus. It has twofold part to play in cancer, oncogenic function and tumoursuppressor function depending upon the ER stress in the cell. In normal circumstances,Nrf-2 interacts with kelch-like ECH-associated protein I to preserve theinactive state in the cytoplasm. PERK dissociates phosphorylated Nrf-2 from kelchlikeECH-associated protein I, which results in its translocation from membrane tothe nucleus and antioxidant genes getting expressed promoting cell survival.
For survival of the tumour during nutrient starvation and hypoxia, it is considerednecessary for the ISR and PERK signalling to get activated. Reactive oxygenspecies (ROS) concentration is increased as a result of oxidative stress and hypoxia.Additionally, PERK signalling upregulates ER oxidoreductase1α that controls ERredox status. As notified in different kinds of cancers, due to upsurge in the levels ofROS in tumours, ER oxidoreductase 1α is overexpressed (Wang et al. 2014).Inhibition of ISR or PERK signalling causes production of ROS that restricts growthof tumour by means of oxidative DNA damage. Retorting to prolonged and intenseER stress, cell death is induced by CHOP, a transcription factor and a downstreamtarget of ATF4 (Hiramatsu et al. 2014). Hence there are possibilities of ISR andPERK being the therapeutic targets for cancer on account of their dual role insignalling pathways (Farooqi et al. 2015).
- Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, and neoplastigenic data. Experimental poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic to humans by inhalation, with the following effects: local anesthetic, conjunctiva irritation, general anesthesia, hallucinations, distorted perceptions, coma, and pulmonary changes. Moderately experimentally toxic by ingestion, inhalation, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. An eye and severe skin irritant. The liquid can cause injuries to the eyes; however, with proper precautions it can be handled safely. The symptoms of acute intoxication from this material are the result of its effects upon the nervous system. Can cause dermatitis, particularly after repeated or prolonged contact with the skin. Irritates the gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion. It may be handled in the presence or absence of air, water, and light with any of the common construction materials at temperatures up to 140o. Thts material is extremely stable and resists hydrolysis. A common air contaminant. Reacts violently under the proper conchions with Ba, Be, Li, N2O4, metals, NaOH. When heated to decomposition it emits htghly toxic fumes of Cl-. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC
- Potential ExposureTetrachloroethylene is used in the textile industry and as a chemical intermediate or a heatexchange fluid; a widely used solvent with particular use as a dry cleaning agent; a degreaser; a fumigant, and medically as an anthelmintic.
- CarcinogenicityTetrachloroethylene is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
- Environmental FateBiological. Sequential dehalogenation by microbes under laboratory conditions produced
trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride (Smith and Dragun, 1984). A microcosm composed of aquifer water and sediment collected from
uncontaminated sites in the Everglades biotransformed tetrachloroethylene to cis- and trans-1,2-
dichloroethylene (Parsons and Lage, 1985). Microbial degradation to trichloroethylene under
anaerobic conditions or using mixed cultures was also reported (Vogel et al., 1987).
Surface Water. Estimated half-lives of tetrachloroethylene (3.2 μg/L) from an experimental marine mesocosm during the spring (8–16 °C), summer (20–22 °C), and winter (3–7 °C) were 28, 13, and 15 d, respectively (Wakeham et al., 1983).
Photolytic. Photolysis in the presence of nitrogen oxides yielded phosgene (carbonyl chloride) with minor amounts of carbon tetrachloride, dichloroacetyl chloride, and trichloroacetyl chloride (Howard, 1990). In sunlight, photolysis products reported include chlorine, hydrogen chloride, and trichloroacetic acid. Tetrachloroethylene reacts with ozone to produce a mixture of phosgene and trichloroacetyl chloride with a reported half-life of 8 d (Fuller, 1976). Reported photooxidation products in the troposphere include trichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene (Andersson et al., 1975; Gay et al., 1976; U.S. EPA, 1975). Phosgene is hydrolyzed readily to hydrogen chloride and carbon dioxide (Morrison and Boyd, 1971).
Chemical/Physical. The experimental half-life for hydrolysis of tetrachloroethylene in water at 25 °C is 8.8 months (Dilling et al., 1975).
- ShippingUN1897 Tetrachloroethylene, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials.
- Purification MethodsIt decomposes under similar conditions to CHCl3, to give phosgene and trichloroacetic acid. Inhibitors of this reaction include EtOH, diethyl ether and thymol (effective at 2-5ppm). Tetrachloroethylene should be distilled under a vacuum (to avoid phosgene formation) and stored in the dark out of contact with air. It can be purified by washing with 2M HCl until the aqueous phase no longer becomes coloured, then with water, drying with Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2 or P2O5, and fractionally distilling just before use. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane and 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane can be removed by counter-current extraction with EtOH/water. [Beilstein 1 IV 715.]
- IncompatibilitiesViolent reaction with strong oxidizers; powdered, chemically active metals, such as aluminum, lithium, beryllium, and barium; caustic soda; sodium hydroxide; potash. Tetrachloroethylene is quite stable. However, it reacts violently with concentrated nitric acid to give carbon dioxide as a primary product. Slowly decomposes on contact with moisture producing trichloroacetic acid and hydrochloric acid. Decomposes in UV light and in temperatures above 150℃, forming hydrochloric acid and phosgene.
- Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal. Incineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced. Alternatively, PCE may be recovered from waste gases and reused.
- Raw materialsChlorine1,2-Dichloroethane Trichloroethylene1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE-D2PENTACHLOROETHANE
- Preparation ProductsCarbon tetrachlorideTrichloroethyleneCleaning agentTrichloroacetic acid4-Aminophenylarsonic acidAmbroxolHexachloroethaneTrichloroacetyl chlorideSodium N-cyclohexylsulfamateFLUOROACETAMIDE1,1,1,2,2,3,3-HEPTACHLOROPROPANE
- Carbon tetrachloride Isopropyl alcohol TETRACHLOROETHYLENE (1,2-13C2) TETRACHLOROETHYLENE MIN. 99.7% Tetrachlorvinphos Tetrachloroethylene-13C2 TETRACHLOROETHENE (TETRACHLOROETHYLENE) IN METHANOL Tetrachloroethylene carbonate,Tetrachloroethylene Carbonate, 98+% TETRACHLOROETHYLENE-1-13C, 99 ATOM % 13C,TETRACHLOROETHYLENE-1-13C,TETRACHLOROETHYLENE-13C1 Trichloroethylene TRANS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE 1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHYLENE [1,2-14C],TETRACHLOROETHYLENE-1,2-14C TETRACHLOROETHENE (1,2-13C2) VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE CIS-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE DCM VINYL CHLORIDE FLUOROLUBE GREASE, GR-362
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