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1,2-Dichloroethane

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1,2-Dichloroethane Basic information
1,2-Dichloroethane Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-35 °C
  • Boiling point:83 °C(lit.)
  • Density 1.256 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 3.4 (20 °C, vs air)
  • vapor pressure 87 mm Hg ( 25 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.444(lit.)
  • Flash point:60 °F
  • storage temp.  0-6°C
  • solubility 7.9g/l
  • form Liquid
  • color APHA: ≤10
  • OdorChloroform-like odor
  • Relative polarity0.327
  • explosive limit6.2-15.9%(V)
  • Water Solubility 8.7 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Merck 14,3797
  • BRN 605264
  • Henry's Law Constant11.24 at 30 °C (headspace-GC, Sanz et al., 1997)
  • Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 10 ppm (~40 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 1 ppm (NIOSH), 50 ppm (MSHA and OSHA); ceiling 2 ppm/15 min (NIOSH); carcinogenicity: Animal Sufficient Evidence, Human Limited Evidence (IARC).
  • CAS DataBase Reference107-06-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceEthane, 1,2-dichloro-(107-06-2)
  • EPA Substance Registry System1,2-Dichloroethane (107-06-2)
Safety Information
MSDS
1,2-Dichloroethane Usage And Synthesis
  • Description1,2-Dichloroethane, also called ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a manufactured chemical that is not found naturally in the environment. It is used principally to synthesize vinyl chloride, which is further used to produce a variety of vinyl based plastics products, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, furniture, automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automobile parts. It is used in solvents in closed systems for various extraction and cleaning purposes in organic synthesis. It is used as a leaded gasoline additive to remove lead, but with declining tendency. It is used as a dispersant in rubber and plastics, as a wetting and penetrating agent. It was used in ore flotation, as a metal degreaser, and in textile and PVC cleaning. It was also used as an insect fumigant for stored grains and in mushroom houses, a soil fumigant in peach and apple orchards. But due to its toxicity, it is no longer registered for use as an insect fumigant in the United States (IARC 1999).
    1,2-Dichloroethane structure
    1,2-Dichloroethane structure
  • Chemical Properties1,2-Dichloroethane is a clear and colorless, flammable liquid which has a pleasant, chloroform-like odor, and a sweetish taste. Decomposes slowly: turns dark and acidic on contact with air, moisture, and light. The Odor Threshold is 100 ppm.It is a volatile compound. It is relatively insoluble in water (8.6 × 103 mg/l at 25 °C) but soluble in various organic solvents and is miscible with alcohol, chloroform, and ether (NLM, 2013).
  • Uses1,2-dichloroethane is used in the synthesis of vinyl chloride and other organic compounds. It is also used as a solvent for nail lacquers, as a degreaser and metal cleaner, in adhesives, in pharmaceutical production, and in tobacco and spice extraction. Ethylene dichloride was historically used as an insecticide fumigant.
  • References[1] https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/substances/toxsubstance.asp?toxid=110
    [2] http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42027/1/9241530014.pdf
    [3] https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/ethylene-dichloride.pdf
  • Chemical PropertiesEthylene dichloride is one of the highest volume chemicals used in the United States. It is a colorless oily liquid with a chloroform-like odor, detectable over the range of 6–40 ppm,with a sweet taste. Ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), which has a carbon-carbon single bond, should be distinguished from 1,2-dichloroethene, which has a carbon-carbon double bond. It is a skin irritant. Ethylene dichloride is also used as an extraction solvent, as a solvent for textile cleaning and metal degreasing, in certain adhesives, and as a component in fumigants for upholstery, carpets, and grain. Other miscellaneous applications include paint, varnish, and fi nish removers, soaps and scouring compounds, wetting and penetrating agents, organic synthesis, ore fl otation, and as a dispersant for nylon, rayon, styrene-butadiene rubber, and other plastics.
  • Physical propertiesClear, colorless, oily liquid with a pleasant, chloroform-like odor. The average least detectable odor threshold concentrations in water at 60 °C and in air at 40 °C were 12 and 52 mg/L, respectively (Alexander et al., 1982). Experimentally determined detection and recognition odor threshold concentrations were 25 mg/m3 (6 ppmv) and 165 mg/m3 (41 ppmv), respectively (Hellman and Small, 1974).
  • Uses1,2-Dichloroethane is used in the manufacture of acetyl cellulose and vinyl chloride; inpaint removers; as a fumigant; as a degreaser;as a wetting agent; and as a solvent for oils,waxes, gums, resins, and rubber.
  • UsesEthylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane), otherwise known as EDC, is produced by reacting chlorine or anhydrous hydrochloric acid with ethylene. The largest single use for EDC is the production of vinyl chloride monomer, which is used to produce poly vinyl chloride (PVC). EDC can also be used in the manufacture of other organic compounds, and as a solvent. Ethylene dichloride is a colorless, oily liquid with a chloroform-like smell. It has many uses in industry, with principal ones being the following:
    As an intermediate in the manufacture of methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, ethylene amines, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), sulfide compounds, vinyl chloride, and trichloroethane.
    As an additive in gasoline (used as a lead scavenger), pharmaceutical products, color film, and pesticides.
    As a solvent for rubber, tobacco extract, paint, printing inks, and varnish.
    Miscellaneous uses include as an ingredient in fingernail polish, for metal degreasing, in extracting spices, and as a dry cleaning agent.
    Two of the major uses for this chemical are the manufacture of PVC and as a lead scavenger in gasoline. The process for making EDC begins with crude oil or natural gas and sodium chloride. The hydrocarbon raw materials are converted to ethene (ethylene), and sodium chloride is electrolyzed to pruduce chlorine.
    2 NaCl + 2 H2O = Cl2 + 2 NaOH + H2
    This electrochemical process is also the major industrial route for sodium hydroxide production, so essentially the only side product from this initial reaction is hydrogen gas, which is later converted to water. Once the ethylene is produced from the crude hydrocarbons, it is reacted with chlorine gas:
    C2H4 + Cl2 - C2H4Cl (1,2-dichloroethane)
    Although its common name would lead one to believe otherwise, EDC does not contain a double bond. In one of its major industrial processes, the manufacture of PVC, the following reaction is carried out:
    C2H4Cl = C2H3Cl (vinyl chloride) + HC1
    The HC1 produced in this reaction is recycled to be used in the first reaction by oxidation of the hydrogen-chlorine bond.
    EDC is a carcinogen and a mutagen. Assessments of 1,2-dichloroethane are in progress under the authority of the Clean Air Act, Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). EDC is also listed under CERCLA as a hazardous material, and is required to be reported as such under Title III of SARA, otherwise known as the Community Right-to-Know Act.
  • Usesmanufacture of vinyl chloride, acetyl cellulose; solvent for fats, oils, waxes, gums, resins, and particularly for rubber. Has been used as insect and soil fumigant.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A member of the class of chloroethanes substituted by two chloro groups at positions 1 and 2.
  • Production MethodsIn the United States, almost all ethylene dichloride produced at present is used as the starting material for preparation of vinyl chloride monomer. Other applications are much smaller.
  • Production MethodsEthylene dichloride (EDC) is produced by reacting ethylene and chlorine in the presence of ferric chloride, using the liquid product as solvent. It is also produced by oxychlorination—ethylene, hydrogen chloride, and air are reacted at about 250 °C with a copper chloride catalyst.
  • General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. Flash point 56°F. Denser than water and insoluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Density 10.4 lb / gal.
    Ethylene dichloride was also used as an extraction solvent, as a solvent for textile cleaning and metal degreasing, in certain adhesives, and as a component in fumigants for upholstery, carpets, and grain. Other miscellaneous applications include paint, varnish, and finish removers, soaps and scouring compounds, wetting and penetrating agents, organic synthesis, ore flotation, and as a dispersant for nylon, rayon, styrene-butadiene rubber, and other plastics. Reports indicate that ethylene dichloride has extensive industrial and other applications around the globe.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Slightly water soluble.
  • Reactivity ProfileLiquid ammonia and 1,2-Dichloroethane can cause an explosion when mixed, NFPA 491M, 1991. A tank of dimethyl amino propyl amine exploded violently when 1,2-Dichloroethane reacted with wet 1,2-Dichloroethane which had been the tank's previous contents [Doyle 1973]. Halogenated aliphatic compounds, such as 1,2-Dichloroethane , are moderately or very reactive. Reactivity generally decreases with increased degree of substitution of halogen for hydrogen atoms. Materials in this group are incompatible with strong oxidizing and reducing agents. Also, they are incompatible with many amines, nitrides, azo/diazo compounds, alkali metals, epoxides, aluminum
  • HazardToxic by ingestion, inhalation, and skin absorption; strong irritant to eyes and skin; a carcinogen. Flammable, dangerous fire risk, explosive limits in air 6–16%. Possible carcinogen.
  • Health HazardThe toxic symptoms from exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane include depression of the cen tral nervous system, irritation of the eyes,corneal opacity, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,ulceration, somnolence, cyanosis, pulmonaryedema, and coma. Repeated exposure mayproduce injury to the kidney and liver. Inges tion of the liquid can cause death. A fataldose in humans may range between 30 and50 mL. The liquid is an irritant to the skinand damaging to the eyes.
    LC50 value, inhalation (rats): 1000 ppm/7 hLD50 value, oral (rabbits): 860 mg/kg
    1,2-Dichloroethane tested positive to thehistidine reversion–Ames test and othermutagenic tests. The compound is carcino genic to animals. Inhalation or oral adminis tration caused lung, gastrointestinal, and skincancers in mice and rats.
  • Fire HazardFlammable liquid; burns with a smoky flame; flash point (closed cup) 13°C (56°F), (open cup) 18°C (65°F); vapor pressure 62 torr at 20°C (68°F); the vapor is heavier than air and can travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back; autoignition tem perature 413°C (775°F); fire-extinguishing agent: dry chemical, CO2, or foam; water may be used to keep fire-exposed contain ers cool and to disperse the vapors and flush away any spill.
    1,2-Dichloroethane forms explosive mix tures with air, with LEL and UEL val ues of 6.2% and 16.0% by volume in air, respectively. Its reactions with alkali met als, powdered aluminum, or magnesium can be violent. It forms explosive mixtures with nitrogen tetroxide.
  • Agricultural UsesFumigant, Insecticide: Not approved for use in EU countries. Not registered for use in the U.S. When mixed with carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dichloride is used as a grain fumigant for bulk storage in bags, sealed containers, bins or on floors. In recent years, 1,2-dichloroethane has found wide use in the manufacture of ethylene glycol, diaminoethylene, polyvinyl chloride, nylon, viscose rayon, styrenebutadiene rubber, and various plastics. It is a solvent for resins, asphalt, bitumen, rubber, cellulose acetate, cellulose ester, and paint; a degreaser in the engineering, textile and petroleum industries; and an extracting agent for soybean oil and caffeine. It is also used as an antiknock agent in gasoline, a pickling agent and a dry-cleaning agent. It has found use in photography, xerography, water softening, and also in the production of adhesives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and varnishes.
  • Trade nameBORER SOL®; BROCIDE®; DESTRUXOL BORER-SOL®; DOWFUME®[C]; DUTCH LIQUID®; DUTCH OIL®
  • Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen with experimental carcinogenic, neoplastigenic, and tumorigenic data. An experimental transplacental carcinogen. A human poison by ingestion. Poison experimentally by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. Moderately toxic by inhalation, skin contact, and intraperitoneal routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion and inhalation: flaccid paralysis without anesthesia (usually neuromuscular blockage), somnolence, cough, jaundce, nausea or vomiting, hypermoulity, diarrhea, ulceration or bleeding from the stomach, fatty liver degeneration, change in cardiac rate, cyanosis, and coma. It may also cause dermatitis, edema of the lungs, toxic effects on the kidneys, and severe corneal effects. A strong narcotic. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. A skin and severe eye irritant, and strong local irritant. Its smell and irritant effects warn of its presence at relatively safe concentrations. Human mutation data reported. if exposed to heat, flame, or oxidizers. Moderately explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to flame. Violent reaction with Al, N2O4, NH3, dimethylaminopropylamine. Can react vigorously with oxidzing materials and emit vinyl chloride and HCl. To fight fire, use water, foam, Co2, dry chemicals. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cland phosgene. See also CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC . Flammable liquid. A dangerous fire hazard
  • Potential ExposureIn recent years, 1,2-dichloroethane is used in the production of vinyl chloride and as a leadscavenging agent in petrol; it has found wide use in the manufacture of ethylene glycol, diaminoethylene, polyvinyl chloride; nylon, viscose rayon; styrenebutadiene rubber, and various plastics. It is a solvent for resins, asphalt, bitumen, rubber, cellulose acetate; cellulose ester; and paint; a degreaser in the engineering, textile, and petroleum industries; and an extracting agent for soybean oil and caffeine. It is also used as an antiknock agent in gasoline; a pickling agent; a fumigant; and a dry-cleaning agent. It has found use in photography, xerography, and water softening; and also in the production of adhesives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and varnishes.
  • Carcinogenicity1,2-Dichloroethane is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
  • SourceImproper use of insecticidal fumigant formulation containing 1,2-dichloropropane and carbon tetrachloride (Granosan).
  • Environmental FateBiological. Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, Methanococcus deltae, and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum metabolized 1,2-dichloroethane releasing methane and ethylene (Belay and Daniels, 1987). 1,2-Dichloroethane showed slow to moderate biodegradative activity with concomitant rate of volatilization in a static-culture flask-screening test (settled domestic wastewater inoculum) conducted at 25 °C. At concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L, percent losses after 4 wk of incubation were 63 and 53, respectively. At a substrate concentration of 5 mg/L, 27% was lost due to volatilization after 10 d (Tabak et al., 1981).
    Photolytic. Titanium dioxide suspended in an aqueous solution and irradiated with UV light (λ = 365 nm) converted 1,2-dichloroethane to carbon dioxide at a significant rate (Matthews, 1986).
    The rate constant for the reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane and OH radicals in the atmosphere at 300 K is 1.3 x 10-11 cm3/molecule?sec (Hendry and Kenley, 1979). At 296 K, a photooxidation rate constant of 2.2 x 10-13 cm3/molecule?sec was reported for the reaction with OH radicals resulting in a half-life of 1.7 months (Howard and Evenson, 1976).
    Chemical/Physical. Anticipated products from the reaction of 1,2-dichloroethane with ozone or OH radicals in the atmosphere are chloroacetaldehyde, chloroacetyl chloride, formaldehyde, and ClHCHO (Cupitt, 1980).
  • Metabolic pathwayResting cell suspensions of the soil methylotroph Methylosinus trichosporium OB-3b rapidly dehalogenate 1,2-dichloroethane, resulting in the formation of chloroethanol via direct hydroxylation of one of the C-Cl bonds, and this ethanol is rapidly oxidized to yield chloroacetic acid.
  • storageEthylene dichloride should be kept protected against physical damage. Store in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fi re hazard may be acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfer to avoid static sparks.
  • ShippingUN1184 Ethylene dichloride, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, 6.1-Poisonous materials. Note: United States DOT 49CFR172.101, Inhalation Hazardous Chemical as 1,2-Dichloroethane
  • Purification MethodsIt is usually prepared by chlorinating ethylene, so that likely impurities include higher chloro derivatives and other chloro compounds depending on the impurities originally present in the ethylene. It forms azeotropes with water, MeOH, EtOH, trichloroethylene, CCl4 and isopropanol. Its azeotrope with water (containing 8.9% water, and b 77o) can be used to remove gross amounts of water prior to final drying. As a preliminary purification step, it can be steam distilled, and the lower layer is treated as below. Shake it with conc H2SO4 (to remove alcohol added as an oxidation inhibitor), wash with water, then dilute KOH or aqueous Na2CO3 and again with water. After an initial drying with CaCl2, MgSO4 or by distillation, it is refluxed with P2O5, CaSO4 or CaH2 and fractionally distilled. Carbonyl-containing impurities can be removed as described for chloroform. [Beilstein 1 IV 131.]
  • DegradationEthylene dichloride (1) had been detected in surface and ground water as an environmental contaminant, resulting from both industrial and agricultural uses. It is also detected following the chlorination of drinking water. Ethylene dichloride is stable to hydrolytic degradation at environmentally relevant pH and temperature.
    The primary dissipation mechanism of ethylene dichloride is volatilisation (DT50 30 min, Moore et al., 1991). Ethylene dichloride interacts with hydroxyl radicals produced by photo-oxidation in air to yield chloracetyl chloride (2, Howard and Evenson, 1976; Radding et al., 1977). The DT50 of ethylene dichloride in the vapour phase under atmospheric photo-oxidation conditions was 12-122 days (Atkinson, 1985).
  • IncompatibilitiesMay form explosive mixture with air. Reacts violently with strong oxidizers and caustics; chemically active metals, such as magnesium or aluminum powder, sodium and potassium; alkali metals; alkali amides; liquid ammonia. Decomposes to vinyl chloride and HCl above 600℃. Attacks plastics, rubber, coatings. Attacks many metals in presence of water.
  • Waste DisposalIncineration, preferably after mixing with another combustible fuel. Care must be exercised to assure complete combustion to prevent the formation of phosgene. An acid scrubber is necessary to remove the halo acids produced
  • PrecautionsOccupational workers should avoid use of ethylene dichloride along with oxidizing agents, strong alkalis, strong caustics, magnesium, sodium, potassium, active amines, ammonia List of Chemical Substances
1,2-Dichloroethane Preparation Products And Raw materials
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