1,4-Dihydroxybenzol Produkt Beschreibung

Hydroquinone Struktur
123-31-9
  • CAS-Nr.123-31-9
  • Bezeichnung:1,4-Dihydroxybenzol
  • Englisch Name:Hydroquinone
  • Synonyma:Hydrochinon;1,4-Dihydroxybenzol;Hydrochinol;Chinol
    HQ;he5;HE 5;Artra;diak5;QUINOL;Diak 5;Melanex;tenoxhq;Phiaquin
  • CBNumber:CB6717931
  • Summenformel:C6H6O2
  • Molgewicht:110.11
  • MOL-Datei:123-31-9.mol
1,4-Dihydroxybenzol physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :172-175 °C(lit.)
  • Siedepunkt: :285 °C(lit.)
  • Dichte :1.32
  • Dampfdichte :3.81 (vs air)
  • Dampfdruck :1 mm Hg ( 132 °C)
  • Brechungsindex :1.6320
  • Flammpunkt: :165 °C
  • storage temp.  :Refrigerator
  • Löslichkeit :H2O: 50 mg/mL, clear
  • pka :10.35(at 20℃)
  • Aggregatzustand :Needle-Like Crystals or Crystalline Powder
  • Farbe :White to off-white
  • Wasserlöslichkeit :70 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Sensitive  :Air & Light Sensitive
  • Merck  :14,4808
  • BRN  :605970
  • Henry's Law Constant :(x 10-9 atm?m3/mol): <2.07 at 20 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
  • Expositionsgrenzwerte :NIOSH REL: 15-min ceiling 2, IDLH 50; OSHA PEL: TWA 2; ACGIH TLV: TWA 2 (adopted).
  • Stabilität: :Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, oxygen, ferric salts. Light and air-sensitive. Discolours in air.
  • InChIKey :QIGBRXMKCJKVMJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS Datenbank :123-31-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST chemische Informationen :Hydroquinone(123-31-9)
  • EPA chemische Informationen :1,4-Benzenediol(123-31-9)
Sicherheit

Hydroquinone Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD FARBLOSE KRISTALLE.
  • PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN Staubexplosion der pulverisierten oder granulierten Substanz in Gemischen mit Luft möglich.
  • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Reagiert sehr heftig mit Natriumhydroxid.
  • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV: 2 mg/m?(als TWA); Krebskategorie A3 (bestätigte krebserzeugende Wirkung beim Tier mit unbekannter Bedeutung für den Menschen); (ACGIH 2005).
    MAK: Hautresorption; Krebserzeugend Kategorie 2; Keimzellmutagen Kategorie 3A; (DFG 2005).
  • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation, über die Haut und durch Verschlucken.
  • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Beim Verdampfen bei 20°C tritt eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft nicht oder nur sehr langsam ein
  • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
    Die Substanz reizt stark die Augen. Die Substanz reizt die Haut und die Atemwege.
  • WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Wiederholter oder andauernder Hautkontakt kann zu Dermatitis und Hautsensibilisierung führen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf Augen und Haut. Führt zu Verfärbung der Bindehaut und Hornhaut, sowie Pigmentverlust der Haut. Möglicherweise krebserzeugend für den Menschen.
  • LECKAGE Verschüttetes Material in abdichtbaren Behältern sammeln; falls erforderlich durch Anfeuchten Staubentwicklung verhindern. Reste sorgfältig sammeln. An sicheren Ort bringen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Atemschutzgerät, P2-Filter für schädliche Partikel. NICHT in die Umwelt gelangen lassen.
  • R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: R22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken.
    R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
    R41:Gefahr ernster Augenschäden.
    R43:Sensibilisierung durch Hautkontakt möglich.
    R50:Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen.
    R68:Irreversibler Schaden möglich.
  • S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
    S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
    S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
  • Aussehen Eigenschaften 1,4 - Hydrochinon
    Summenformel: C6H6O2
  • Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen und Verschlucken.
    Zu vermeidende Bedingungen: Licht- und Luftempfindlich. Zu vermeidende Stoffe: Starke Oxidationsmittel, Säuren. Säureanhydride, Säurechloride, Eisen und Eisensalze.
    Gefährliche Zersetzungsprodukte: Kohlenmonoxid, Kohlendioxid,
    Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken, Einatmen oder Aufnahme durch die Haut.
    Reizt die Augen und die Haut. Reizwirkung auf die Schleimhäute und die oberen Atemwege. Fruchtschädigende Substanz.
    Krebserzeugend (Gr. III A 2; DFG)
    Wassergefährdungsklasse 2 (Nr. 128)
  • Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln Behälter dicht geschlossen halten. An einem trockenen, kühlen Platz lagern.
    Schutzbrille mit Seitenschutz.
    Chemikalienresistente Schutzhandschuhe.
  • Verhalten im Gefahrfall Feste Bestandteile mechanisch aufnehmen. Nicht in Oberflächenwasser und Kanalisation gelangen lassen.
    Geeignete Löschmittel: Kohlendioxid, Trockenlöschmittel oder geeigneter Schaum.
  • Erste Hilfe Nach Hautkontakt: Nach Berührung sofort mit Seife und viel Wasser abwaschen.
    Nach Augenkontakt: 15 Minuten bei gespreizten Lidern unter fließendem Wasser ausspülen. Augenarzt konsultieren!
    Nach Einatmen: Nach Einatmen, Person sofort an die frische Luft bringen.
    Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser nachtrinken und unverzüglich Arzt zu Rate ziehen.
    Nach Kleidungskontakt: Benetzte Kleidungsstücke sofort ausziehen, ggf. auch die Unterwäsche.
    Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

  • Sachgerechte Entsorgung Falls Recycling nicht möglich, die Substanz zur Sonderabfallverbrennung geben. Auskunft: Hr. Riepl (8884711) od. Hr. Uhl für Klinikum (2015557).
  • Chemische Eigenschaften white needle-like crystals or crystalline powder
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Hydroquinone, a colorless, hexagonal prism, has been reported to be a good antimitotic and tumor-inhibiting agent. It is a reducing agent used in a photographic developer, which polymerizes in the presence of oxidizing agents. In the manufacturing industry it may occur include bacteriostatic agent, drug, fur processing, motor fuel, paint, organic chemicals, plastics, stone coating, and styrene monomers.
  • Physikalische Eigenschaften Colorless to pale brown, odorless, hexagonal crystals
  • Verwenden hydroquinone is a pigment-lightening agent used in bleaching creams. Hydroquinone combines with oxygen very rapidly and becomes brown when exposed to air. Although it occurs naturally, the synthetic version is the one commonly used in cosmetics. Application to the skin may cause allergic reaction and increase skin sun sensitivity. Hydroquinone is potentially carcinogenic and is associated with causing ochronosis, a discoloration of the skin. The u.S. FDA has banned hydroquinone from oTC cosmetic formulations, but allows 4 percent in prescription products. Its use in cosmetics is prohibited in some european countries and in Australia.
  • Verwenden K channel agonist, antihypertensive
  • Verwenden reducing agent prevents polymerization of resin monomers lightens darkened skin, light sensitive
  • Verwenden As photographic reducer and developer; as reagent in the determination of small quantities of phosphate; as antioxidant.
  • Verwenden Use as photographic reducer and developer; as reagent in the determination of small quantities of phosphate; as antioxidant. Depigmentor
  • Definition ChEBI: A benzenediol comprising benzene core carrying two hydroxy substituents para to each other.
  • Indications Hydroquinone interferes with the production of the pigment melanin by epidermal melanocytes through at least two mechanisms: it competitively inhibits tyrosinase, one of the principal enzymes responsible for converting tyrosine to melanin, and it selectively damages melanocytes and melanosomes (the organelles within which melanin is stored).
  • Trademarks Aida;Ambi- skin tone;Black and white;Creme des 3 fleur d'orient;Eldopaque forte;Eldoquin forte 4% cream;Epocler;Esoterica facial;Esoterica regular;Esoterica sensitive skin;Esoterica sunscreen;Melanex topical sollution;Melpaque hp;Melqui hp;Neostrata aha gel;Neostrata hq;Nuquin hp;Pigmanorm;Porcelana;Sinquin;Solaquin forte sun bleaching;Superfade age spot;Ultraquin plaine.
  • Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) Hydroquinone was introduced in 1965 as a topical depigmenting agent for hyperpigmentation. At high concentrations hydroquinone is corrosive and in most countries has been restricted to the level of approximately 2% and limited to the period of less than 2 months. Additional consideration for restrictive action is that animal experiments have also demonstrated carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of hydroquinone.
  • Allgemeine Beschreibung Light colored crystals or solutions. May irritate the skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Mildly toxic by ingestion or skin absorption.
  • Air & Water Reaktionen Darkens on exposure to air and light. Miscible in water. Solutions become brown in air due to oxidation. Oxidation is very rapid in the presence of alkali.
  • Reaktivität anzeigen Hydroquinone is a slight explosion hazard when exposed to heat. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Also incompatible with bases. Hydroquinone reacts with oxygen and sodium hydroxide. Reacts with ferric salts . Hot and/or concentrated NaOH can cause Hydroquinone to decompose exothermically at elevated temperature. (NFPA Pub. 491M, 1975, 385)
  • Hazard Toxic by ingestion and inhalation, irritant. Questionable carcinogen.
  • Health Hazard Exposures to hydroquinone in large quantities by accidental oral ingestion produce toxicity and poisoning. The symptoms of poisoning include, but are not limited to, blurred speech, tinnitus, tremors, sense of suffocation, vomiting, muscular twitching, headache, convul- sions, dyspnea and cyanosis from methemoglobinemia, coma, and collapse from respira- tory failure. Occupational workers should be allowed to work with protective clothing and dust masks with full-face or goggles to protect the eyes, and under proper management.
  • Health Hazard Hydroquinone is very toxic; the probable oral lethal dose for humans is 50-500 mg/kg, or between 1 teaspoon and 1 ounce for a 150 lb. person. It is irritating but not corrosive. Fatal human doses have ranged from 5-12 grams, but 300-500 mg have been ingested daily for 3-5 months without ill effects. Death is apparently initiated by respiratory failure or anoxia.
  • Brandgefahr Dust cloud may explode if ignited in an enclosed area. Hydroquinone can react with oxidizing materials and is rapidly oxidized in the presence of alkaline materials. Oxidizes in air.
  • Kontakt-Allergie Hydroquinone is used in photography developers (black and white, X-ray, and microfilms), in plastics, in hair dyes as an antioxidant and hair colorant. Hydroquinone is found in many skin bleaching creams.
  • Clinical Use Hydroquinone is applied topically to treat disorders characterized by excessive melanin in the epidermis, such as melasma. In the United States, nonprescription skin-lightening products contain hydroquinone at concentrations of 2% or less; higher concentrations are available by prescription.
  • Nebenwirkungen The incidence of adverse effects with hydroquinone increases in proportion to its concentration. A relatively common side effect is local irritation, which may actually exacerbate the discoloration of the skin being treated. Allergic contact dermatitis occurs less commonly. A rare but more serious complication is exogenous ochronosis, in which a yellow-brown pigment deposited in the dermis results in blue-black pigmentation of the skin that may be permanent.
  • Source Hydroquinone occurs naturally in strawberry tree leaves, pears, blackberries, Chinese alpenrose, bilberries, blackberries, hyacinth flowers, anise, cowberries, and lingonberries (Duke, 1992).
  • Environmental Fate Biological. In activated sludge, 7.5% mineralized to carbon dioxide after 5 d (Freitag et al., 1985). Under methanogenic conditions, inocula from a municipal sewage treatment plant digester degraded hydroquinone to phenol prior to being mineralized to carbon dioxide and methane (Young and Rivera, 1985). In various pure cultures, hydroquinone degraded to the following intermediates: benzoquinone, 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone, and β-ketoadipic acid. Hydroquinone also degraded in activated sludge but no products were identified (Harbison and Belly, 1982). Heukelekian and Rand (1955) reported a 5-d BOD value of 0.74 g/g which is 39.2% of the ThOD value of 1.89 g/g. In activated sludge inoculum, following a 20-d adaptation period, 90.0% COD removal was achieved. The average rate of biodegradation was 54.2 mg COD/g?h (Pitter, 1976).
    Photolytic. A carbon dioxide yield of 53.7% was achieved when hydroquinone adsorbed on silica gel was irradiated with light (λ >290 nm) for 17 h (Freitag et al., 1985). Chemical/Physical. Ozonolysis products reported are p-quinone and dibasic acids (Verschueren, 1983). Moussavi (1979) studied the autoxidation of hydroquinone in slightly alkaline (pH 7 to 9) aqueous solutions at room temperature. The oxidation of hydroquinone by oxygen followed first-order kinetics that yielded hydrogen peroxide and p-quinone as products. At pH values of 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0, the calculated half-lives of this reaction were 111, 41, and 0.84 h, respectively (Moussavi, 1979).
    Chlorine dioxide reacted with hydroquinone in an aqueous solution forming p-benzoquinone (Wajon et al., 1982). Kanno et al. (1982) studied the aqueous reaction of hydroquinone and other substituted aromatic hydrocarbons (aniline, toluidine, 1- and 2-naphthylamine, phenol, cresol, pyrocatechol, resorcinol, and 1-naphthol) with hypochlorous acid in the presence of ammonium ion. They reported that the aromatic ring was not chlorinated as expected but was cleaved by chloramine forming cyanogen chloride. As the pH was lowered, the amount of cyanogen chloride formed increased (Kanno et al., 1982).
    At influent concentrations of 1.0, 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001 mg/L, the GAC adsorption capacities were 160, 90, 51, and 29 mg/g, respectively (Dobbs and Cohen, 1980).
  • läuterung methode Crystallise quinol from acetone, *benzene, EtOH, EtOH/*benzene, water or acetonitrile (25g in 30mL), preferably under nitrogen. Dry it under vacuum. [Wolfenden et al. J Am Chem Soc 109 463 1987, Beilstein 6 H 836, 6 IV 5712.]
Hydroquinone Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
Upstream-Materialien
Downstream Produkte
1,4-Dihydroxybenzol Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.
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123-31-9, Hydroquinone Verwandte Suche:
  • Hydroquinone ReagentPlus(R), >=99.5%
  • HYDROQUINONE GPR RECTAPUR
  • PHOTO GRADE Hydroquinone
  • HYDROQUINONE PHOTO GRADE 99%
  • p-Benzediel p-Dihydroxybenzene Hydroquinol 1,4-Benzenediol 1,4-Dihydroxybenzene Quinol
  • Hydroquinone, p.a.
  • he5
  • Hidroquinone
  • HQ
  • Hydrochinon
  • hydrochinon(czech,polish)
  • Hydroquinol
  • Hydroquinole
  • Hydroquinone(form3)
  • Hydroquinone, 1,4-benzenediol
  • Hydroquinone, 99.5%, 99.5%
  • Hydrochinone 0
  • hydroquinone--1,4-benzenediol
  • Idrochinone
  • Melanex
  • NCI-C55834
  • para-dihydroxybenzene
  • paradioxybenzene
  • para-dioxybenzene
  • para-hydroquinone
  • p-Benzenediol
  • p-dihydroxy-benzen
  • p-Dioxobenzene
  • Phiaquin
  • p-Hydroxybenzene
  • p-Hydroxyphenol
  • p-quinol
  • pyrogentisticacid
  • Solaquin forte
  • Tecquinol
  • Tecquinol tech. grade
  • Tenox HQ
  • tenoxhq
  • Tequinol
  • USAF ek-356
  • usafek-356
  • HYDROXYQUINOL
  • HYDROCHINONE
  • HYDROQUINONE
  • AKOS BBS-00004220
  • 1,4-BENZENEDIOL
  • 1,4-DIHYDROXYBENZENE
  • p-Djbydroxybenzene
  • P-DIOXYBENZENE
  • P-DIHYDROXYBENZENE
  • p-Hydroquinone
  • QUINOL
  • PYROGENTISIC ACID
  • p-Benzediel
  • Hydroxyquinone
  • HYDROQUINONE MONOMETHYL
  • HYDROQUINON
  • Hydroquinone 1,4-dihydroxybenzene