Ethanol Produkt Beschreibung
- Englisch Name:Etanol
Ethanol physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
- Schmelzpunkt: :-114°C
- Siedepunkt: :78°C
- Dichte :0.789 g/mL at 20 °C
- Dampfdichte :1.59 (vs air)
- Dampfdruck :43 mmHg at 20 °C
- FEMA :2419 | ETHYL ALCOHOL
- Brechungsindex :1.3614
- Flammpunkt: :12°C
- storage temp. :Store at RT.
- Löslichkeit :water: soluble (completely)
- pka :16(at 25℃)
- Aggregatzustand :Liquid. Colorless liquid / invisible vapor.
- Farbe :APHA: ≤10
- Wichte :0.80872～0.81601
- Geruch (Odor) :Pleasant alcoholic odor detectable at 49 to 716 ppm (mean = 180 ppm)
- Relative polarity :0.654
- PH :7.0 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- Explosionsgrenze :3.1-27.7%(V)(ethanol)
- Wasserlöslichkeit :miscible
- Sensitive :Hygroscopic
- maximale Wellenlänge (λmax) :λ: 240 nm Amax: 0.40
λ: 250 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 270 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 340 nm Amax: 0.10
- JECFA Number :41
- Merck :14,3760
- BRN :1718733
- Expositionsgrenzwerte :TLV-TWA 1900 mg/m3 (1000 ppm) (ACGIH).
- Stabilität: :Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong oxidizing agents, peroxides, acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkali metals, ammonia, moisture. Forms explosive mixtures with air. Hygroscopic.
- CAS Datenbank :64-17-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST chemische Informationen :Ethanol(64-17-5)
- EPA chemische Informationen :Ethanol(64-17-5)
- Kennzeichnung gefährlicher :F,T,Xn,N
- R-Sätze: :11-10-36/37/38-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-68/20/21/22-20/21/22-52/53-51/53
- S-Sätze: :16-7-36-26-45-36/37-61-24/25-2017/7/16
- RIDADR :1170
- WGK Germany :nwg
- RTECS-Nr. :KQ6300000
- Selbstentzündungstemperatur :363 °C
- TSCA :Yes
- HazardClass :3
- PackingGroup :II
- HS Code :22071000
- Giftige Stoffe Daten :64-17-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
- Toxizität :LD50 in young, old rats (g/kg): 10.6, 7.06 orally (Wiberg)
Etanol Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden
- ERSCHEINUNGSBILD FARBLOSE FLüSSIGKEIT MIT CHARAKTERISTISCHEM GERUCH.
- PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHREN Die Dämpfe mischen sich leicht mit Luft. Bildung explosionsfähiger Gemische.
- CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Reagiert langsam mit Calciumhypochlorit, Silberoxid und Ammoniak. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr! Reagiert heftig mit starken Oxidationsmittelnwie Salpetersäure, Silbernitrat, Quecksilbernitrat oder Magnesiumperchlorat. Feuer- und Explosionsgefahr!
TLV: 1000 ppm (als TWA) Krebskategorie A4 (nicht klassifizierbar als krebserzeugend für den Menschen); (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: 500 ppm 960 mg/m?Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor II(2); Krebserzeugend Kategorie 5; Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; Keimzellmutagen Kategorie 5; (DFG 2005).
- AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation der Dämpfe und durch Verschlucken.
- INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Beim Verdampfen bei 20 °C tritt langsam eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft ein.
WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION
WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Die Substanz reizt die Augen. Inhalation hoher Dampfkonzentrationen kann zu Reizung der Augen und der Atemwege führen. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf das Zentralnervensystem.
- WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Die Flüssigkeit entfettet die Haut. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die oberen Atemwegeund das Zentralnervensystem. Führt zu Reizung, Kopfschmerzen, Erschöpfung und Konzentrationsschwäche. (S. Anm.)
- LECKAGE Belüftung. Zündquellen entfernen. Ausgelaufene Flüssigkeit möglichst in abdichtbaren Behältern sammeln. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen.
R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R39/23/24/25:Giftig: ernste Gefahr irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen, Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R23/24/25:Giftig beim Einatmen, Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R68/20/21/22:Gesundheitsschädlich: Möglichkeit irreversiblen Schadens durch Einatmen,Berührung mit der Haut und durch Verschlucken.
R20/21/22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen,Verschlucken und Berührung mit der Haut.
R52/53:Schädlich für Wasserorganismen, kann in Gewässern längerfristig schädliche Wirkungen haben.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S7:Behälter dicht geschlossen halten.
S36:DE: Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung tragen.
S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36/37:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzkleidung tragen.
S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
S24/25:Berührung mit den Augen und der Haut vermeiden.
- Beschreibung Ethyl alcohol, also called ethanol, absolute alcohol, or grain alcohol, is a clear, colorless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odor. It is associated primarily with alcoholic beverages, but it has numerous uses in the chemical industry. The word alcohol is derived from the Arabic word al kuhul, which was a fine powder of the element antimony used as a cosmetic. In Medieval times, the word al kuhul came to be associated with the distilled products known as alcohols. The hydroxyl group, -OH, bonded to a carbon, characterizes alcohols. Ethyl is derived from the root of the two-carbon hydrocarbon ethane.
- Chemische Eigenschaften Ethyl alcohol has a slight, characteristic odor and a burning taste
- Chemische Eigenschaften Colourless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid, hygroscopic
- Chemische Eigenschaften Ethyl alcohol is a colorless flammable liquid with a typical lower alcohol odor and is miscible in water in all proportions. It is stable and hygroscopic. It is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, peroxides, acids, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, alkali metals, ammonia, and moisture. Ethyl alcohol forms explosive mixtures with air. Ethyl alcohol is the most common solvent used in aerosols, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, alcoholic beverages, vinegar production, and in the chemical synthesis of a large variety of products in different industries. For instance, in the manufacture of plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, adhesives, rubber accelerators, explosives, synthetic resins, nitrocellulose, inks, preservatives, and as a fuel.
- Chemische Eigenschaften Ethyl alcohol is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid with a sweet, fruity odor. The Odor Threshold is 0.1355 ppm.
- Chemische Eigenschaften In the BP 2009, the term ‘alcohol’; used without other qualification refers to ethanol containing ≥99.5% v/v of C2H6O. The term‘alcohol’, without other qualification, refers to ethanol 95.1–96.9% v/v. Where other strengths are intended, the term ‘alcohol’ or ‘ethanol’is used, followed by the statement of the strength. In the PhEur 6.0, anhydrous ethanol contains not less than 99.5% v/v of C2H6O at 208℃. The term ethanol (96%) is used to describe the material containing water and 95.1–96.9% v/v of C2H6O at 208℃.
- Occurrence Reported found in apple, apple aroma, apple essence, apple juice, bacon fat, banana, bean, beef fat, beef extract, blackberry, black currant, bread, brussels sprout, cabbage, carrot root, cauliflower, blue cheese, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese, cocoa bean, cherry, coffee, cream, cucumber, alcoholic beverages and many other sources
- History Alcohol is produced naturally from the fermentation of sugars, and it is assumed that prehistoric humans consumed alcohol when eating fermented fruits. The earliest direct evidence of alcohol consumption dates from the Neolithic period 10,000 years ago and consists of stone jugs used for holding alcoholic beverages. Ancient records and art from Egypt, Babylon, Mesopotamia, and other early civilizations indicate the use of alcohol as a beverage, medicine, and ceremonial drink. Records also show that the intoxicating effects of alcohol were known for thousands of years b.c.e. Alcoholic drinks were stored in Egyptian burial tombs, and deities devoted to alcoholic beverages were worshiped by different civilizations. As the human population expanded, alcoholic drinks assumed a prominent role in different cultures; for example, numerous references are made to wine in the Bible. Ancient Islamic alchemists advanced the practice of alcohol production by using distillation techniques. Distilled alcohols began to appear in the Middle Ages and was used in many remedies and medicines. A common practice by alchemists in different regions was the preparation of special liquors and brews with healing power. Aqua vitae (water of life) could refer to brandy, gin, whiskey, wine, or another form of alcoholic depending on the geographic area.
- Verwenden One of the most prominent uses of ethyl alcohol is as a fuel additive and increasingly as a fuel itself. Ethyl alcohol is added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and octane number. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that oxygenated fuels be used in certain geographic areas to help meet air quality standards for carbon monoxide, especially in winter. A gasoline blended for this purpose may contain a few percent ethyl alcohol. Gasoline blended with ethyl alcohol is called gasohol. A typical gasohol may contain 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol. Gasohol reduces several common air pollutants including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and benzene. Conversely, nitrogen oxides increase with gasohol.
- Verwenden Ethanol is used primarily as a solvent — animportant industrial solvent for resins, lacquers, pharmaceuticals, toilet preparations,and cleaning agents; in the production of rawmaterials for cosmetics, perfumes, drugs, andplasticizers; as an antifreeze; as an automotive fuel additive; and from ancient times, inmaking beverages. Its pathway to the bodysystem is mainly through the consumption ofbeverages. It is formed by the natural fermentation of corn, sugarcane, and other crops.
- Verwenden alcohol (alcohol SD-40; alcohol SDA-40; ethanol; ethyl alcohol) is widely used in the cosmetic industry as an antiseptic as well as a solvent given its strong grease-dissolving abilities. It is often used in a variety of concentrations in skin toners for acne skin, aftershave lotions, perfumes, suntan lotions, and toilet waters. Alcohol dries the skin when used in high concentrations. It is manufactured through the fermentation of starch, sugar, and other carbohydrates.
- Verwenden ethyl alcohol (Etanol) is commonly known as rubbing alcohol. ethyl alcohol is ordinary alcohol and is used medicinally as a topical antiseptic, astringent, and anti-bacterial. At concentrations above 15 percent, it is also a broad-spectrum preservative against bacteria and fungi, and can boost the efficacy of other preservatives in a formulation. Cosmetic companies tend to use alcohol SD-40 in high-grade cosmetic manufacturing as they consider ethanol too strong and too drying for application on the skin. obtained from grain distillation, it can also be synthetically manufactured.
- Verwenden Suitable for use in the precipitation of nucleic acids.
- Verwenden Most ethyl alcohol is used in alcoholic beverages in suitable dilutions. Other uses are as solvent in laboratory and industry, in the manufacture of denatured alcohol, pharmaceuticals (rubbing Compounds, lotions, tonics, colognes), in perfumery, in organic synthesis. Octane booster in gasoline. Pharmaceutic aid (solvent).
- Definition ChEBI: A primary alcohol that is ethane in which one of the hydrogens is substituted by a hydroxy group.
- Vorbereitung Methode Ethanol is manufactured by the controlled enzymatic fermentation of starch, sugar, or other carbohydrates. A fermented liquid is produced containing about 15% ethanol; ethanol 95% v/v is then obtained by fractional distillation. Ethanol may also be prepared by a number of synthetic methods.
- Definition A colorless volatile liquid alcohol. Ethanol occurs in intoxicating drinks, in which it is produced by fermentation of a sugar: C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Yeast is used to cause the reaction. At about 15% alcohol concentration (by volume) the reaction stops because the yeast is killed. Higher concentrations of alcohol are produced by distillation. Apart from its use in drinks, alcohol is used as a solvent and to form ethanal. Formerly, the main source was by fermentation of molasses, but now catalytic hydration of ethene is used to manufacture industrial ethanol. See also methylated spirits.
Ethanol is the most widely abused drug in the world.
There are more than 10 million alcoholics in the United
States alone. Excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
has been linked to as many as half of all traffic accidents,
two-thirds of homicides, and three-fourths of
suicides, and it is a significant factor in other crimes, in
family problems, and in personal and industrial accidents.
The annual cost to the American economy has
been estimated to exceed $100 billion in lost productivity,
medical care, and property damage.
Alcoholism has been difficult to define because of its complex nature.A person is generally considered an alcoholic, however, when his or her lifestyle is dominated by the procurement and consumption of alcoholic beverages and when this behavior interferes with personal, professional, social, or family relations.
A light drinker generally is defined as one who consumes an average of one drink or less per day, usually with the evening meal; a moderate drinker is one who has approximately three drinks per day; and a heavy drinker is one who has five or more drinks per day (or in the case of binge drinkers, at least once per week with five or more drinks on each occasion).
- Indications Intravenous use of ethanol, while once widely employed to inhibit premature labor, is now of historical interest only. Ethanol inhibits oxytocin release from the pituitary and thus indirectly decreases myometrial contractility. Today, 2-adrenomimetics and magnesium sulfate have replaced ethanol for parenteral tocolysis.
- synthetische There are several approaches to the production of ethanol; mainly ethanol is produced by fermentation.
- Trademarks Absolute alcohol;Alcohol aethylicus;Alcool;Avitoin;Banatol;B-tonin;Colfin;Desqyam-x;Duonale-e;Efatin;Equithesin;Hizeneck-d;Honkon-n;Kapsitrin;Keralyt;Levovinizol;Mikrozid;Neotizol;Panoxy;Papette;Piadarn;Polislerol;Protectaderm;Sicol;Sodaphilline;Softa man;Sotracarix;Verucid;Weingeist;Xeracin.
- Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) Ethanol has been used throughout recorded history both in a medicinal and a social context. It is currently included in pharmaceutical preparations either as an active or inactive ingredient. At pharmacologically active doses ethanol is both a powerful cerebral depressant and a drug of addiction. Its use in pharmaceutical preparations has been severely restricted in several countries and in 1986 the 39th World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to prohibit such use except when ethanol is an essential ingredient which cannot be replaced by an appropriate alternative.
- Aroma threshold values Detection: 8 to 900 ppb
- Reaktivität anzeigen It liberates hydrogen when it reacts withmetal; forms acetaldehyde (toxic, flammable)on catalytic vapor phase dehydrogenation;ethyl ether (flammable) on dehydration withH2SO4 or a heterogeneous catalyst such asalumina, silica, SnCl2, MnCl2, or CuSO4;.
- Hazard Classified as a depressant drug. Though it is rapidly oxidized in the body and is therefore noncumulative, ingestion of even moderate amounts causes lowering of inhibitions, often succeeded by dizziness, headache, or nausea. Larger intake causes loss of m
- Health Hazard VAPOR: Irritating to eyes, nose and throat. LIQUID: Not harmful.
- Health Hazard The acute toxicity of ethanol is very low. Ingestion of ethanol can cause temporary nervous system depression with anesthetic effects such as dizziness, headache, confusion, and loss of consciousness; large doses (250 to 500 mL) can be fatal in humans. High concentrations of ethanol vapor are irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract. Liquid ethanol does not significantly irritate the skin but is a moderate eye irritant. Exposure to high concentrations of ethanol by inhalation (over 1000 ppm) can cause central nervous system (CNS) effects, including dizziness, headache, and giddiness followed by depression, drowsiness, and fatigue. Ethanol is regarded as a substance with good warning properties. Tests in some animals indicate that ethanol may have developmental and reproductive toxicity if ingested. There is no evidence that laboratory exposure to ethanol has carcinogenic effects. To discourage deliberate ingestion, ethanol for laboratory use is often "denatured" by the addition of other chemicals; the toxicity of possible additives must also be considered when evaluating the risk of laboratory exposure to ethanol
- Health Hazard Exposures to ethyl alcohol by ingestion cause dizziness, faintness, drowsiness, decreased awareness and responsiveness, euphoria, abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, staggering gait, lack of coordination, and coma. Ethyl alcohol causes no adverse effects with normal skin, but is potentially harmful when absorbed across markedly abraded skin. Repeated inhalation of ethyl alcohol vapors in high concentrations may cause a burning sensation in the throat and nose, stinging and watering in the eyes with symptoms of irritation, dizziness, faintness, drowsiness, nausea, and vomiting. Direct exposures of the eyes to ethyl alcohol may cause mild to moderate conjunctivitis, seen mainly as redness of the conjunctiva. Prolonged and repeated oral exposures to ethyl alcohol result in the development of progressive liver injury with fi brosis. Chronic exposures or repeated ingestion of ethyl alcohol by pregnant women are known to adversely affect the CNS of the fetus, producing a collection of effects that together constitute fetal alcohol syndrome. The adverse health effects observed in the fetus include mental and physical retardation, disturbances of learning, motor, and language defi ciencies, small size head, and behavioral disorders. The target organs that are damaged by prolonged exposures to ethyl alcohol include the eyes, skin, respiratory system, CNS, liver, blood, and reproductive system.
The toxicity of ethanol is much lower thanthat of methanol or propanol. However, theliterature on the subject is vastly greater thanthat of any other alcohol. This is attributableessentially to its use in alcoholic beverages.There are exhaustive reviews on alcohol toxicity and free-radical mechanisms (Nordmannet al. 1987). The health hazard arises primarily from ingestion rather than inhalation. Ingestion of a large dose, 250–500 mL,can be fatal. It affects the central nervoussystem. Symptoms are excitation, intoxication, stupor, hypoglycemia, and coma — thelatter occurring at a blood alcohol contentof 300–400 0 mg/L. It is reported to have atoxic effect on the thyroid gland (Hegeduset al. 1988) and to have an acute hypotensiveaction, reducing the systolic blood pressurein humans (Eisenhofer et al. 1987). Chronicconsumption can cause cirrhosis of the liver.Inhalation of alcohol vapors can result inirritation of the eyes and mucous membranes.This may happen at a high concentrationof 5000–10,000 ppm. Exposure may resultin stupor, fatigue, and sleepiness. There isno report of cirrhosis occurring from inhalation. Chronic exposure to ethanol vapors hasproduced brain damage in mice. The neurotoxicity increases with thiamine deficiency(Phillips 1987). Both acute and chronic dosesof ethanol elevated the lipid peroxidation inrat brain. This was found to be elevated further by vitamin E deficiency, as well as itssupplementation (Nadiger et al. 1988).
pplementation (Nadiger et al. 1988).The toxicity of ethanol is enhanced in thepresence of compounds such as barbiturates,carbon monoxide, and methyl mercury. Withthe latter compound, ethanol enhanced theretention of mercury in the kidney of ratsand thus increased nephrotoxicity (McNeilet al. 1988). When combined with cocaineand fed to rats, increased maternal and fetaltoxicity was observed (Church et al. 1988).Ethanol is reported to be synergisticallytoxic with caffeine (Pollard 1988) andwith n-butanol and isoamyl alcohol. Priorethanol consumption increased the toxicity of acetaminophen in mice (Carter1987).
- Brandgefahr Ethanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Ethanol vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4.3 to 19% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in ethanol fires include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethanol fires.
- Brandgefahr Flash Point (°F): 55 ℃; 64 ℃; Flammable Limits in Air (%): 3.3-19; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Carbon dioxide, dry chemical, water spray, alcohol foam; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: None; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: None; Behavior in Fire: Not pertinent; Ignition Temperature (°F): 689; Electrical Hazard: Class I, Group D; Burning Rate: 3.9 mm/min.
- Brandgefahr FLAMMABLE. Flashback along vapor trail may occur. Vapor may explode if ignited in an enclosed area.
- Flammability and Explosibility Ethanol is a flammable liquid (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Ethanol vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 4.3 to 19% (by volume). Hazardous gases produced in ethanol fires include carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ethanol fires.
- Chemische Reaktivität Reactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
- Pharmazeutische Anwendungen Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions of various concentrations are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. Although ethanol is primarily used as a solvent, it is also employed as a disinfectant, and in solutions as an antimicrobial preservative. Topical ethanol solutions are used in the development of transdermal drug delivery systems as penetration enhancers. Ethanol has also been used in the development of transdermal preparations as a co-surfactant.
- Kontakt-Allergie Ethanol is widely used for its solvent and antiseptic properties. It is rather an irritant and sensitization has rarely been reported.
- Mechanism of action A great deal of attention has been focused on a class of proteins termed the ligand-gated ion channels as being important to the mechanism of action of alcohol.These integral membrane proteins function as gates or pores that allow the passage of certain ions into and out of neurons upon binding of the appropriate neurotransmitter. This flux of ions largely determines the degree of neuronal activity. Two distinct types of ligand-gated ion channels are particularly sensitive to concentrations of alcohol that produce intoxication and sedation. These are the α-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride ionophore and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor. The GABA–chloride ion channel reduces neuronal activity by hyperpolarizing the neurons, while activation of the NMDA receptor causes neuronal depolarization or excitation. Alcohol has been shown to increase chloride flux through the GABAA receptor and reduce calcium flux through the NMDA receptor. These actions result in powerful suppression of nerve cell activity, which is consistent with the depressant actions of alcohol in the brain.
Generally, no treatment is required for acute ethanol intoxication.
Allowing the individual to sleep off the effects
of ethanol ingestion is the usual procedure.
Hangovers are treated similarly; that is, no effective
remedy exists for a hangover, except for controlling the
amount of ethanol consumed. Sometimes ethanol overdose
is a medical emergency. For example, prompt treatment
is required if the patient is in danger of dying of
respiratory arrest, is comatose, has dilated pupils, is hypothermic,
or displays tachycardia.
Treatment for severe ethanol overdose is generally supportive. Increased intracranial pressure can be relieved by intravenous administration of hypertonic mannitol. Hemodialysis can accelerate the removal of ethanol from the body. Stimulants of ethanol metabolism, such as fructose, are not sufficiently effective, and use of analeptics is not recommended because of the possibility of precipitating convulsions.
The immediate concern in the treatment of alcoholics is detoxification and management of the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Another pharmacological approach is the use of anticraving drugs, for example serotonin uptake inhibitors,dopaminergic agonists, and opioid antagonists.The only treatment that has shown considerable promise is one that uses the opioid antagonist naltrexone.
Acute Ethanol Intoxication and Hangover
Ethanol intoxication is probably the best-known form of drug toxicity. Intoxicated individuals are a threat to themselves and others, particularly if they attempt to drive or operate machinery. Although death can result from ethanol overdose, usually the patient lapses into a coma before ingesting lethal quantities. Ethanol intoxication is sometimes mistakenly diagnosed as diabetic coma, schizophrenia, overdosage of other CNS depressant drugs, or skull fracture. An additional feature commonly associated with excessive ethanol consumption is difficulty in regulating body temperature. Hypothermia frequently results, with body temperature falling toward that of the ambient environment. This problem can be particularly severe in the elderly, who normally have difficulty regulating their body temperature.
One of the consequences of ethanol intoxication is the hangover, a condition characterized by headache, nausea, sweating, and tremor. Although unpleasant, a hangover is not dangerous, even though the person having one may feel otherwise.
- Sicherheitsprofil Confirmed human carcinogen for ingestion of beverage alcohol. Experimental tumorigenic and teratogenic data. Moderately toxic to humans by ingestion. Moderately toxic experimentally by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation and skin contact. Human systemic effects by ingestion and subcutaneous routes: sleep disorders, hallucinations, dtstorted perceptions, convulsions, motor activity changes, ataxia, coma, antipsychotic,headache, pulmonary changes, alteration in gastric secretion, nausea or vomiting, other gastrointestinal changes, menstrual cycle changes, and body temperature decrease. Can also cause glandular effects in humans. Human reproductive effects by ingestion, intravenous, and intrauterine routes: changes in female fertility index. Effects on newborn include: changes in Apgar score, neonatal measures or effects, and drug dependence. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. An eye and skin irritant. The systemic effect of ethanol differs from that of methanol. Ethanol is rapidly oxidtzed in the body to carbon dtoxide and water, and, in contrast to methanol, no cumulative effect occurs. Though ethanol possesses narcotic properties, concentrations sufficient to produce this effect are not reached in industry. Concentrations below 1000 pprn usually produce no signs of intoxication. Exposure to concentrations over 1000 pprn may cause headache, irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and, if continued for an hour, drowsiness and lassitude, loss of appetite, and inability to concentrate. There is no concrete evidence that repeated exposure to ethanol vapor results in cirrhosis of the liver. Ingestion of large doses can cause alcohol poisoning. Repeated ingestions can lead to alcoholism. It is a central nervous system depressant.Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react vigorously with oxidizers. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. Explosive reaction with the oxidized coating around potassium metal. Ignites and then explodes on contact with acetic anhydride + sodum hydrogen sulfate. Reacts violently with acetyl bromide (evolves hydrogen bromide), dichloromethane + sulfuric acid + nitrate or nitrite, disulfuryl difluoride, tetrachlorosilane + water, and strong oxidants. Ignites on contact with disulfuric acid + nitric acid, phosphorus(IⅡ) oxide, platinum, potassium tert-butoxide + acids. Forms explosive products in reaction with ammonia + silver nitrate (forms silver nitride and silver fulminate), magnesium perchlorate (forms ethyl perchlorate), nitric acid + silver (forms silver fulminate), silver nitrate (forms ethyl nitrate), silverp) oxide + ammonia or hydrazine (forms silver nitride and silver fulminate), sodum (evolves hydrogen gas). Incompatible with acetyl chloride, BrF5, Ca(OCl)2, ClO3, Cr03, Cr(OCl)2, (cyanuric acid + H20), H202, HNO3, (H202 + H2SO4), (I + CH3OH + HgO), wn(ClO4)2 + 2,2-dimethoxy propane], Hg(NO3)2, HClO4, perchlorates, (H2SO4 + permanganates), HMn04, KO2, KOC(CH3)3, AgClO4, NaH3N2, uo2(clO4)2
Ethanol and aqueous ethanol solutions are widely used in a variety
of pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics. It is also consumed
in alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and the vapor may be absorbed through the lungs; it is metabolized, mainly in the liver, to acetaldehyde, which is further oxidized to acetate.
Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and ingestion of low to moderate quantities can lead to symptoms of intoxication including muscle incoordination, visual impairment, slurred speech, etc. Ingestion of higher concentrations may cause depression of medullary action, lethargy, amnesia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, stupor, coma, respiratory depression, and cardiovascular collapse. The lethal human blood-alcohol concentration is generally estimated to be 400–500 mg/100 mL.
Although symptoms of ethanol intoxication are usually encountered following deliberate consumption of ethanol-containing beverages, many pharmaceutical products contain ethanol as a solvent, which, if ingested in sufficiently large quantities, may cause adverse symptoms of intoxication. In the USA, the maximum quantity of alcohol included in OTC medicines is 10% v/v for products labeled for use by people of 12 years of age and older, 5% v/v for products intended for use by children aged 6–12 years of age, and 0.5% v/v for products for use by children under 6 years of age.
Parenteral products containing up to 50% of alcohol (ethanol 95 or 96% v/v) have been formulated. However, such concentrations can produce pain on intramuscular injection and lower concentrations such as 5–10% v/v are preferred. Subcutaneous injection of alcohol (ethanol 95% v/v) similarly causes considerable pain followed by anesthesia. If injections are made close to nerves, neuritis and nerve degeneration may occur. This effect is used therapeutically to cause anesthesia in cases of severe pain, although the practice of using alcohol in nerve blocks is controversial. Doses of 1mL of absolute alcohol have been used for this purpose.
Preparations containing more than 50% v/v alcohol may cause skin irritation when applied topically.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.93 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 1.97 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, oral): 3.45 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, SC): 8.29 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IP): 3.75 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 1.44 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 7.06 g/kg
- mögliche Exposition Ethyl alcohol is used, topical antiinfective agent; solvent to make beverages; in the chemical synthesis of a wide variety of compounds, such as acetaldehyde, ethyl ether, ethyl chloride, and butadiene. It is a solvent or processing agent in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals; plastics, lacquers, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, cosmetics, rubber accelerators; explosives, synthetic resins; nitrocellulose, adhesives, inks, and preservatives. It is also used as an antifreeze and as a fuel. It is an intermediate in the manufacture of many drugs and pesticides.
- Lager Ethyl alcohol should be protected from physical damage. It should be kept stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated location, away from any area where the fi re hazard may be acute. Outside or detached storage is preferred. Separate from incompatibles. Containers should be bonded and grounded for transfer to avoid static sparks. The storage and use areas should be free from smoking areas.
- Lager Aqueous ethanol solutions may be sterilized by autoclaving or by filtration and should be stored in airtight containers, in a cool place.
- Versand/Shipping UN1170 Ethyl alcohol or Ethanol or Ethanol solutions or Ethyl alcohol solutions, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
- läuterung methode Usual impurities of fermentation alcohol are fusel oils (mainly higher alcohols, especially pentanols), aldehydes, esters, ketones and water. With synthetic alcohol, likely impurities are water, aldehydes, aliphatic esters, acetone and diethyl ether. Traces of *benzene are present in ethanol that has been dehydrated by azeotropic distillation with *benzene. Anhydrous ethanol is very hygroscopic. Water (down to 0.05%) can be detected by formation of a voluminous precipitate when aluminium ethoxide in *benzene is added to a test portion, Rectified spirit (95% ethanol) is converted to absolute (99.5%) ethanol by refluxing with freshly ignited CaO (250g/L) for 6hours, standing overnight and distilling with precautions to exclude moisture. Numerous methods are available for further drying of absolute ethanol for making “Super dry ethanol”. Lund and Bjerrum [Chem Ber 64 210 1931] used reaction with magnesium ethoxide, prepared by placing 5g of clean dry magnesium turnings and 0.5g of iodine (or a few drops of CCl4), to activate the Mg, in a 2L flask, followed by 50-75 mL of absolute ethanol, and warming the mixture until a vigorous reaction occurs. When this subsides, heating is continued until all the magnesium is converted to magnesium ethoxide. Up to 1L of ethanol is then added and, after an hour's reflux, it is distilled off. The water content should be below 0.05%. Walden, Ulich and Laun [Z Phys Chem 114 275 1925] used amalgamated aluminium chips, prepared by degreasing aluminium chips (by washing with Et2O and drying in a vacuum to remove grease from machining the Al), treating with alkali until hydrogen evolved vigorously, washing with H2O until the washings were weakly alkaline and then stirring with 1% HgCl2 solution. After 2minutes, the chips were washed quickly with H2O, then alcohol, then ether, and dried with filter paper. (The amalgam became warm.) These chips were added to the ethanol, which was then gently warmed for several hours until evolution of hydrogen ceased. The alcohol was distilled and aspirated for some time with pure dry air. Smith [J Chem Soc 1288 1927] reacted 1L of absolute ethanol in a 2L flask with 7g of clean dry sodium, and added 25g of pure ethyl succinate (27g of pure ethyl phthalate was an alternative), and refluxed the mixture for 2hours in a system protected from moisture, and then distilled the ethanol. A modification used 40g of ethyl formate instead, so that sodium formate separated out and, during reflux, the excess of ethyl formate decomposed to CO and ethanol. Drying agents suitable for use with ethanol include Linde type 4A molecular sieves, calcium metal, and CaH2. The calcium hydride (2g) is crushed to a powder and dissolved in 100mL absolute ethanol by gently boiling. About 70mL of the ethanol are distilled off to remove any dissolved gases before the remainder is poured into 1L of ca 99.9% ethanol in a still, where it is boiled under reflux for 20hours, while a slow stream of pure, dry hydrogen (better use nitrogen or Ar) is passed through. It is then distilled [Rüber Z Elektrochem 29 334 1923]. If calcium is used for drying, about ten times the theoretical amount should be used, and traces of ammonia (from some calcium nitride in the Ca metal) would be removed by passing dry air into the vapour during reflux. Ethanol can be freed from traces of basic materials by distillation from a little 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid or sulfanilic acid. *Benzene can be removed by fractional distillation after adding a little water (the *benzene/water/ethanol azeotrope distils at 64.9o), the alcohol is then re-dried using one of the methods described above. Alternatively, careful fractional distillation can separate *benzene as the *benzene/ethanol azeotrope (b 68.2o). Aldehydes can be removed from ethanol by digesting with 8-10g of dissolved KOH and 5-10g of aluminium or zinc per L, followed by distillation. Another method is to heat under reflux with KOH (20g/L) and AgNO3 (10g/L) or to add 2.5-3g o
- Inkompatibilitäten In acidic conditions, ethanol solutions may react vigorously with oxidizing materials. Mixtures with alkali may darken in color owing to a reaction with residual amounts of aldehyde. Organic salts or acacia may be precipitated from aqueous solutions or dispersions. Ethanol solutions are also incompatible with aluminum containers and may interact with some drugs.
- Inkompatibilitäten May form explosive mixture with air. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. Reactions may be violent with oleum, sulfuric acid; nitric acid, bases, aliphatic amines;isocyanates, strong oxidizers. Also incompatible with potassium dioxide, bromine pentafluoride; acetyl bromide; acetyl chloride; platinum, sodium.
- Waste disposal Dissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
- Vorsichtsmaßnahmen During handling of ethyl alcohol, workers should use chemical-resistant shields, monogoggles, proper gloves, laboratory coat/apron, and protective equipment as required. Workers and the workplace should have adequate ventilation vent hoods, class b extinguisher. Workers should avoid sources of heat, sparks, or flames. Waste disposal and spill should be collected in suitable containers or absorbed on a suitable absorbent material for subsequent disposal. Waste material should be disposed of in an approved incinerator or in a designated landfi ll site, in compliance with all federal, provincial, and local government regulations.
- Regulatory Status Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; inhalations; IM, IV, and SC injections; nasal and ophthalmic preparations; oral capsules, solutions, suspensions, syrups, and tablets; rectal, topical, and transdermal preparations). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients. Included in nonparenteral and parenteral medicines licensed in the UK.
Etanol Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
- Phosphorsäuredimethylesterchlorid Triethoxy(vinyl)silan 3-[2-[Decahydro-6-hydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-5,8a-dimethyl-2-methylennaphthyl]ethyliden]dihydro-4-hydroxyfuran-2(3H)-on Chromtriacetat Bis(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-8,8'-diapo-.psi.,.psi.-carotindioat m-Nitrozimtsure Natrium-4-vinylbenzolsulfonat 1-Ethoxypropan-2-ol Ethyloctanoat 7-Hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-benzopyron 1,4-Diethylbenzol (3-Chlorpropyl)triethoxysilan Ethyldecanoat Ethyl-2-acetylhexanoat O-Ethyldichlorothiophosphat
Ethanol Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.Global(377)Suppliers
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64-17-5, Etanol Verwandte Suche:
- Acetaldehyd 2-Aminoethanol Kupfer(II)-4-oxopent-2-en-2-olat Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptan-3,5-dionato-O,O')europium Palladium(II)di(4-oxopent-2-en-2-oat) Bis(pentan-2,4-dionato-O,O')mangan Ethylisocyanacetat Mangantris(4-oxopent-2-en-2-oat) Aluminiumtris(2,4-pentandionato-O,O') Bis(pentan-2,4-dionato-O,O')nickel Tris(pentan-2,4-dionato)eisen(II) Tris(pentan-2,4-dionato-O,O')lanthan (Pentan-2,4-dionato-O,O')silber Methylisocyanacetat Tris(2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptan-3,5-dionato-O,O')dysprosium 2-Mercaptoethanol 2-Phenylethanol Ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoat
- ALCOHOL, SDA 3C
- ETHANOL ABSOLUTE DVH
- Absolute ethanol
- Alcare Hand Degermer
- Alcohol anhydrous
- Alcohol, dehydrated
- Alcohol, diluted
- Tecsol C
- USI in oval
- Alcohol absolute
- Ethyl alcohol 95%
- Edible ethanol
- ETHANOL REAGENT ANHYDROUS DENATURED
- ETHANOL, ABSOLUTE, DENAT. WITH 1% CYCLOH EXANE
- ETHANOL CONTROL-L
- ETHANOL ABSOLUT DENAT. 1% CYCLOHEXANE A
- ETHANOL 96 VOL.% EXTRA PURE
- ETHANOL, ACS, PH HELV, "F13 O"
- ETHANOL ABSOLUTE DENATURATED WITH MEK
- ETHANOL ABSOLUTE 200 PROOF FOR &
- ETHANOL, FOR HPLC, A15 O
- ETHANOL, PH HELV, 'F15 O'
- ETHANOL, ACS, FOR UV-SPECTROSCOPY,
- ETHANOL ABSOLUTE 200 PROOF 99.5% A.&
- ETHANOL SEMICONDUCTOR GRADE MOS PURANAL<TM> FOR EXPORT
- ETHANOL G CHROMASOLV<TM>
- TOYOPEARL ETHER-650M, 100ML
- ETHANOL, 190 PROOF, FOR MOLECULAR &
- ETHANOL DENATURED REAGENT GRADE
- ETHANOL, PH EUR
- ETHANOL, DENAT.WITH 1% DIETHYL PHTHALATE 'F15 P'
- ETHANOL, FOR RESIDUE ANALYSIS
- ETHANOL SOLUTION, PH HELV,70 % IN WATER (V/V)
- ETHANOL, 'F25 O'
- ETHANOL, DENAT. WITH 1% CYCLOHEXANE
- ETHANOL, PH EUR, ANHYDROUS
- Ethanol absolute semiconductor grade puranal for Export (honeywell 17833)
- ETHANOL, STANDARD FOR GC
- ETHANOL, DENATURATED WITH 4.8% ISO-PROPA NOL 'A15ISO'
- ETHANOL, 1X1ML, MEOH, 2000UG/ML
- ETHANOL ABSOLUT, REINST