- Melting point:43-47 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:309 °C
- Density 1.112 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density 4.4 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 10 mm Hg ( 167.7 °C)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:>230 °F
- storage temp. Desiccate at RT
- solubility water: soluble
- pkapK1:9.03(0);pK2:11.63(+1) (25°C)
- form Very Fine Crystalline Powder
- color White
- PH4-5 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- Water Solubility 400 g/L (25 ºC)
- Sensitive Light Sensitive
- Merck 14,8000
- BRN 907431
- Stability:Stability Stable, but decolourises in light. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidising agents, alkalies, metal oxides, ammonia, antipyrine, phenol, iodine, lime water, menthol, potassium permanganate, strong bases.
- CAS DataBase Reference87-66-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference1,2,3-Benzenetriol(87-66-1)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPyrogallol (87-66-1)
- Hazard Codes Xn
- Risk Statements 20/21/22-52/53-68-40-36/38
- Safety Statements 22-24/25-61-36/37-26
- RIDADR UN 2811 6.1/PG 3
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS UX2800000
- F 8
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 2907 29 00
- HazardClass 6.1
- PackingGroup III
- Hazardous Substances Data87-66-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in rabbits: 1.6 g/kg (Dollahite)
- Chemical Propertieswhite crystalline solid
- Chemical PropertiesWhite or nearly white needle- or leaf-shaped crystals or crystalline powder.Pyrogallol is practically odorless.
- UsesPyrogallol is used in the manufacture of various dyes; in dyeing furs, hairs, and feathers; for staining leather; in engraving;as a developer in photography; and as an analytical reagent..
Pyrogallol possesses importance as a spectrophotometric reagent in the determination of niobium and tantalum. The absorptions of niobium and tantalum complexes are usually measured at 340 and 335 nm, respectively. The niobium complex is formed in slightly acidic medium, and the tantalum complex in strongly acidic medium (4 N HC1). The absorption spectra are pH-dependen.
- UsesComplexing agent; reducing agent; alkaline solution indicator for gaseous oxygen.
- DefinitionChEBI: A benzenetriol carrying hydroxy groups at positions 1, 2 and 3.
- Production MethodsPyrogallol is prepared by heating dried gallic acid at about 200°C with the loss of carbon dioxide or by the chlorination of cyclohexanol to tetrachlorocyclohexanone, followed by hydrolysis.
- General DescriptionOdorless white to gray solid. Sinks and mixes with water.
- Air & Water ReactionsTurns gray on exposure to light or air. Water soluble.
- Reactivity ProfilePyrogallol is a strong reducing agent. Reacts with alkalis, NH3, antipyrine, camphor, phenol, iron and lead salts, iodine, lime water, menthol and KMnO4.
- HazardToxic by ingestion and skin absorption.
- Health HazardThe toxic symptoms are similar to those of phenol. It can enter the body by absorption through skin and ingestion. The poisoning effects are nausea, vomiting, gastritis, hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, kidney and liver damage, convulsions, and congestion of lungs. High doses can cause death. Ingestion of 2–3 g of solid can be fatal to humans. The LD50 values varied widely in species. The oral LD50 value in mice is about 300 mg/kg.
- Health HazardInhalation of dust causes irritation of nose and throat. Ingestion may cause severe gastrointestinal irritation, convulsions, circulatory collapse, and death. Contact with eyes causes irritation. Skin contact can cause local discoloration, irritation, eczema, and death; repeated contact can cause sensitization.
- Fire HazardPyrogallol is probably combustible.
- Contact allergensPyrogallol belongs to the phenols group. It is an old photograph developer and a low sensitizer in hair dyes.
- Safety ProfileHuman poison by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. An experimental poison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Mutation data reported. 1 198 PPRSOO PYROSULFURYL CHLORIDE Readdy absorbed through the skin. Human systemic effects by ingestion: convulsions, dyspnea, gastrointestinal effects. A severe skin and eye irritant. Incompatible with alkalies, NH3, antipyrine, phenol, iron and lead salts, iodine, KMn04. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. Used as a topical antibacterial agent, as an intermediate, hair dye component, and analytical reagent.
- CarcinogenicityPyrogallol was not carcinogenic
in mouse and rabbit chronic dermal studies. Mice were
treated twice weekly with pyrogallol in acetone (50%) on
the shaved flank for life. There was no increase in dermal or
systemic tumors. A similar study in rabbits also
revealed no skin tumors, although positive controls showed
an increase in tumors in both mice and rabbits.
Pyrogallol was considered to be cocarcinogenic when administered dermally three times a week together with the skin carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene for 440 days; pyrogallol administered alone caused no increase in skin tumors.
- 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid Gallic acid monohydrate 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoyl chloride Colchicine Octyl gallate 4-ETHOXYCARBONYLOXY-3,5-DIMETHOXYBENZOIC ACID Syringic acid METHYL-BETA-D-GALACTOPYRANOSIDE 2,3,4-Trimethoxybenzoic acid PYROGALLOL-4-CARBOXYLIC ACID,PYROGALLOL CARBOXYLIC ACID 3,4,5-TRIETHOXYBENZOIC ACID 3-(2,3,4-TRIMETHOXYPHENYL)PROPIONIC ACID Propyl gallate PYROGALLOL MONOMETHYL ETHER,PYROGALLOL-1-METHYL ETHER,PYROGALLOL 1-MONOMETHYL ETHER 2,3,4-TRIMETHOXYBENZONITRILE Dodecyl gallate Phloroglucinol dihydrate BENZENETRIOL
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