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Gallamine triethiodide

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Gallamine triethiodide Basic information
Gallamine triethiodide Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:235 °C (dec.) (lit.)
  • Density 1.4288 (estimate)
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility H2O: 100 mg/mL
  • form powder
  • color Crystals from Me2CO (aq)
  • Merck 13,4364
Safety Information
Gallamine triethiodide Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesWhite Solid
  • OriginatorFlaxedil,Davis and Geck,US,1951
  • UsesMuscle relaxant;M2 antagonist allosteric
  • UsesGallamine Triethiodide is used as a neuromuscular blocking agent, paralyzing locally during anesthetization.
  • Manufacturing Process12.6 grams of pyrogallol are dissolved in 100 cc of hot toluene. 14 grams of sodamide (85%)are added to the solution at about 100°C in 5 portions over a period of 15 minutes, with agitation. There are then added with agitation, over a period of 30 minutes, 100 cc of a toluene solution containing 474 grams of diethylaminochlorethane per liter of toluene.
    The mixture is then heated for 1 hour, the toluene being refluxed, whereafter it is left to cool, 50 cc of water are added and, after decanting, the solution is again washed with two quantities of 50 cc of water. The toluene solution is dried over potassium carbonate and distilled in vacuo. There is thus obtained 28 grams of 1.2.3-tri-(β-diethylaminoethoxy)benzene, boiling at 206°C under 1 mm pressure.
    20 grams of 1.2.3-tri-(β-diethylaminoethoxy)-benzene is heated for 5 hours under reflux on the water bath with 30 grams of ethyl iodide. The hot mixture is dissolved in 50 cc of water, filtered after addition of 2 grams of decolorizing black, evaporated to dryness on the water bath and recrystallized from 120 cc of alcohol. The product can be further recrystallized in mixtures of acetone and water.
    The triethiodide of 1.2.3-tri-(β-diethylaminoethoxy)-benzene is thus obtained as white crystals which, after drying, have a rather indefinite melting point at about 152° to 153°C, (Maquenne block).
  • Therapeutic FunctionMuscle relaxant
  • General DescriptionGallamine triethiodide,[v-phenenyl-tris(oxyethylene)]tris[triethylammonium] triiodide(Flaxedil), is a skeletal muscle relaxant that works byblocking neuromuscular transmission in a manner similar tothat of d-tubocurarine (i.e., a nondepolarizing blockingagent). It does have some differences, however. It has astrong vagolytic effect and a persistent decrease in neuromuscularfunction after successive doses that cannot be overcome by cholinesterase inhibitors. Gallamine triethiodidealso has muscarinic antagonistic properties and bindswith greater affinity to the M2 receptors than to the M1 receptor.This latter characteristic may cause its strongvagolytic action.
  • Clinical UseGallamine Triethiodide is contraindicated in patients with myastheniagravis, and one should remember that its action is cumulative,as with curare. The antidote for gallamine triethiodideis neostigmine.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion, subcutaneous, intravenous, parenteral, intraduodenal, intraperitoneal, and intramuscular routes. Whenheated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NH3, NOx, and Ií.
  • Chemical SynthesisGallamine, 1,2,3-tris-(2-triethylaminoethoxy)benzene triiodide, is synthesized from pyrogallol, the hydroxyl groups of which are esterified by 2-diethylaminoethylchloride in the presence of sodium amide. The resulting 1,2,3-tris-(2-triethylaminoethoxy) benzene is further alkylated at all three nitrogen atoms by ethyliodide, giving gallamine.

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