Glyoxal Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-14 °C
- Boiling point:104 °C
- Density 1.265 g/mL at 25 °C
- vapor density >1 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 18 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:104°C
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility water: soluble(lit.)
- form Liquid
- color Clear colorless to yellow
- Water Solubility miscible
- Merck 14,4509
- BRN 1732463
- Stability:Stability Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. Strong reducing agent. May polyermize exothermically. Incompatible with air, water, oxygen, peroxides, amides, amines, hydroxy-containing materials, nitric acid, aldehydes. Corrodes many metals.
- CAS DataBase Reference107-22-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceEthanedial(107-22-2)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemGlyoxal (107-22-2)
- Hazard Codes Xn
- Risk Statements 20-36/38-43-68
- Safety Statements 36/37
- RIDADR UN 1760
- WGK Germany 1
- RTECS MD2700000
- Autoignition Temperature545 °F
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 29121900
- Hazardous Substances Data107-22-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 in rats, guinea pigs (mg/kg): 2020, 760 orally (Smyth)
Glyoxal Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertiescolourless or light yellow liquid
- Usesermanent-press fabrics; dimensional stabilization of rayon and other fibers. Insolubilizing agent for compounds containing polyhydroxyl groups (polyvinyl alcohol, starch, and cellulosic materials); insolubilizing of proteins (casein, gelatin, and animal glue); embalming fluids; leather tanning; paper coatings with hydroxyethylcellulose; reducing agent in dyeing textiles.
- UsesGlyoxal is used in the production of textilesand glues and in organic synthesis.
- DefinitionChEBI: The dialdehyde that is the smallest possible and which consists of ethane having oxo groups on both carbons.
- General DescriptionYellow crystals melting at15°C. Hence often encountered as a light yellow liquid with a weak sour odor. Vapor has a green color and burns with a violet flame.
- Air & Water ReactionsMixtures with air may explode. Polymerizes quickly on standing, or on contact with a trace of water (possibly a violent reaction), or when dissolved in solvents containing water, [Merck, 502(1968)]. Soluble in water. An aqueous solution contains mono molecular Glyoxal. [Hawley]
- Reactivity ProfileGlyoxal reacts vigorously with strong oxidizing agents such as nitric acid. Polymerizes rapidly even at low temperature if anhydrous [Noller]. Aqueous solutions are more stable but also polymerize on standing. Reacts with itself in the presence of base to give glyconates. Undergoes addition and condensation reactions that may be exothermic with amines, amides, aldehydes, and hydroxide-containing materials. Mixing in equal molar portions with any of the following substances in a closed container caused the temperature and pressure to increase: chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, ethyleneimine, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide [NFPA 1991].
- HazardMixture of vapor and air may explode. Questionable carcinogen.
- Health HazardGlyoxal is a skin and eye irritant; the effectmay be mild to severe. Its vapors are irritatingto the skin and respiratory tract. Anamount of 1.8 mg caused severe irritation inrabbits’ eyes. Glyoxal exhibited low toxicityin test subjects. Ingestion may cause somnolenceand gastrointestinal pain.
LD50 value, oral (guinea pigs): 760 mg/kg.
- Health HazardInhalation causes some irritation of nose and,40% solution throat. Contact with liquid,40% solution irritates eyes and causes mild irritation of skin; stains skin yellow. (No information available on symptoms of ingestion.)
- Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: Heat may cause polymerization to a combustible, viscous material.
- Safety ProfileLow toxicity by SYN: AEROTEX GLYOXAL 40 ingestion and skin contact. A skin irritant. A powerful reducing agent. May explode on contact with air. Polymerizes violently on contact with water. During storage it may spontaneously polymerize and ignite. Reacts violently with chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene imine, HNO3, oleum, NaOH, can cause violent reactions. Can explode during manufacture. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ALDEHYDES.
- Waste DisposalGlyoxal is mixed with a combustible solventand burned in a chemical incineratorequipped with an afterburner and scrubber.
Glyoxal Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsMethanolSodium nitriteAluminum oxide Ethylene glycolCupric oxideAcetaldehydeQuartz tubing, fused, 12.7mm (0.5in) OD for compression type fittingsstrongly acidic type cation exchange resinSilver catalystNS-398WEAKLY BASIC ANION EXCHANGE RESIN
- Preparation ProductsImidazoleGlyoxylic acidFluorescent Brightener 1854-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid2-MethylimidazoleQUINOXALINE-6-CARBOXYLIC ACID2-ChloropyrazineD(-)-4-Hydroxyphenylglycine6-CHLOROQUINOXALINEFluorescent Brightener 1841,2-Dimethyl-5-nitroimidazole4'-(IMIDAZOL-1-YL)ACETOPHENONE4-HydroxyphenylacetamideAllantoinBERBERINE CHLORIDEHydroxyethyl CelluloseQuinoxaline6,7-DINITROQUINOXALINE4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)imidazolidin-2-oneMetronidazoleCYAZOFAMID2-HYDROXYPYRAZINE2,3-Pyrazinecarboxylic anhydride2-Methoxy-3-sec-butyl pyrazineGlyoxalbis(2-hydroxyanil)4-Hydroxyphenethyl alcoholAmiloride hydrochloride2-Amino-4-hydroxy-1H-pteridinefinishing agent for cotton fabric2-Isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine30% sulfaclozine2-Methoxy-3-isobutyl pyrazineEthylpyrazine2,6-Dichloropyrazine
- Ethylene glycol Acetaldehyde Squaric acid RHODIZONIC ACID DIPOTASSIUM SALT N-(4-CHLORO-PHENYL)-OXALAMIC ACID ETHYL ESTER 1,2-Cyclohexanedione Diethyl squarate Ethyl oxalyl monochloride METHYL OXALYL CHLORIDE OXALYL BROMIDE Tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone 1,4-DIBROMO-2,3-BUTANEDIONE 4,4'-DIBROMOBENZIL O-BROMANIL Oxalyl chloride TRIQUINOLYL 3-Methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione Glyoxal
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