Basic information Chemical Properties Uses Content analysis Toxicity Quantity restrictions Production Category Acute toxicity Stimulus data Flammability and Hazardous characteristics Storage Safety Related Supplier
ChemicalBook >  Product Catalog >  Organic Chemistry >  Ketones >  2,3-Butanedione


Basic information Chemical Properties Uses Content analysis Toxicity Quantity restrictions Production Category Acute toxicity Stimulus data Flammability and Hazardous characteristics Storage Safety Related Supplier
2,3-Butanedione Basic information
2,3-Butanedione Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-4--2 °C
  • Boiling point:88 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.985 g/mL at 20 °C
  • vapor density 3 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 52.2 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • FEMA 2370 | DIACETYL
  • refractive index n20/D 1.394(lit.)
  • Flash point:45 °F
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility 200g/l
  • form Liquid
  • color Clear yellow
  • explosive limit2.4-13.0%(V)
  • Odor Threshold0.00005ppm
  • Water Solubility 200 g/L (20 ºC)
  • JECFA Number408
  • Merck 14,2966
  • BRN 605398
  • Stability:Stable. Flammable. Incompatible with acids, strong bases, metals, reducing agents, oxidizing agents. Protect from moisture and water. Note low flashpoint.
  • CAS DataBase Reference431-03-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry Reference2,3-Butanedione(431-03-8)
  • EPA Substance Registry System2,3-Butanedione (431-03-8)
Safety Information
2,3-Butanedione Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesYellow to yellow green liquid, a creamy fragrance after bulk dilution (1mg/kg), high vapor pressure is, evaporate quickly at room temperature, melting point-3~-4℃, boiling point 87~88℃, flash point 13℃. Soluble in ethanol, ether, most non-volatile oil and propylene glycol, soluble in glycerin and water, insoluble in mineral oil. Natural products exist in laurel oil, ajawa oil, angelica root oil, raspberry, strawberry, cream, Wine etc. Because it is volatile, it only exists in in the primary distillate and distilled water.
  • UsesDiacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a naturally occurring product and can be found in numerous foods such as butter, milk, cheese, smoked or roasted meats, breads, fruits, vegetables, coffee, beer, and wine. Diacetyl is synthesized to be used as a food additive to impart a buttery flavor and has been designated as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance with low acute toxicity (FDA, 1980). Desirable flavor concentrations in food are approximately 0.05–5.0 ppm and above that range it imparts a disagreeable taste. The most recognized recent use has been in microwave popcorn, but it has also been used for many other products (NTP, 1994, 2007). Diacetyl may be used in additives as a liquid, paste, or powder (Boylstein et al., 2006).
    It meets GB 2760—1996 standards of edible spices for the moment. It is mainly used for the preparation of food essence like cream, cheese fermentation and coffee typed essence,used in milk, butter, margarine, cheese, sweets and other flavors, such as berry, caramel, chocolate, coffee, cherry, vanilla bean, honey, cocoa, fruit, wine, aroma, rum, nuts, almonds, ginger and so on. It can also be used in fresh fruit fragrance essence for makeup or new type essence in trace amount, and be used as gelatin hardening agent and photographic adhesive agent.
  • Content analysisThe content of 2,3-Butanedione is analyzed according to method 1(hydroxylamine method) of the aldehyde and ketone analyzing methods (OT-7). The sample weight is 500mg. The equivalent factor (e) in calculation is 21.52 .It is Fit to be analyzed using nonpolar column in GT-10-4.
  • ToxicityNot specified by ADI (FAO/WHO,1994)
  • Quantity restrictionsFEMA(mg/kg): FEMA(mg/kg):soft drinks 2.5;cold drinks 5.9;sweets 21;bakery products44; puddings 19;chewing gum 35;shortening 11.
  • ProductionIn nature, Diacetyl exists widely in many Plant essential oils, such as iris oil, angelica oil, laurel oil, etc. It is the main component of butter and other natural products fragrance.
    In industry, methyl ethyl ketone was treated with nitrite acid to generate diacetylmonoxime. Diacetylmonoxime is then decomposed by sulfuric acid to produce Butanedione.
    Diacetyl can be obtained by chemical ionization method from high content of essential oil. Two parts of phosphoric acid were added to one part of essential oil to
    produce crystalline adduct CH3CO-COCH3. Butanedione was released after the addition of water. Excessive addition of phosphoric acid will lead to liquid adduct product.
    Diacetyl can be obtained by special fermentation of glucose.
    Diacetyl can be synthesized using methyl ethyl ketone as raw material.
    Diacetyl was oxidized by sodium nitrite in the presence of hydrochloric acid,
    Then, the process of istillation is carried out after hydrolysis in the presence of sulfuric acid to produce Butanedione.
  • Categoryflammable liquid
  • Acute toxicityOral-rat  LD50: 1580mg/kg, oral-mice: 250 mg/kg
  • Stimulus dataSkin-rabbit 500 mg/24h middle
  • Flammability and Hazardous characteristicsFlammable in case of fire, high temperature and oxidant, Combustion produces irritating smoke.
  • StorageVentilated and dry warehouse with low temperature. Separated from oxidant, acid.
  • Chemical Properties2,3-Butanedione is a constituent of many fruit and food aromas and well-known as a constituent of butter. Many methods are known for itsmanufacture, for example, dehydrogenation of 2,3-butanediol with a copper chromite catalyst. Biotechnological production on an industrial scale is referred. It is used mainly in aromas for butter and roasted notes. Large quantities are used for flavoring margarine; small amounts are used in perfumes.
  • Chemical PropertiesDiacetyl has a very strong buttery odor in very dilute solution.
  • OccurrenceReported in the oils of: Finnish pine, angelica and lavender; in the flowers of Polyalthia canangioides Boerl. var. angustifolia and Fagroea racemosa Jack. The following plants are also reported to contain diacetyl: Monodora grandiflora Benth., Magnolia tripetale L., Ximenia aegyptiaca L., Petasites fragrans Presl., various narcissi and tulips. It has been identified in certain types of wine, the natural aromas of raspberry and strawberry, and the oils of lavender, lavandin, Réunion geranium, Java citronella, and Cistus ladaniferus L. It is also reported to be found in ligonberry, guava, raspberry, strawberry, cabbage, peas, tomato, vinegar, various cheeses, yogurt, milk, butter, chicken, beef, mutton, pork, cognac, beer, wines, whiskies, tea and coffee.
  • Uses2,3-Butanedione is a flavoring agent that is a clear yellow to yellowish green liquid with a strong pungent odor. It is also known as 2,3-butanedione and is chemically synthesized from methyl ethyl ketone. It is miscible in water, glycerin, alcohol, and ether, and in very dilute water solution it has a typical buttery odor and flavor.
  • UsesInactivates aminopeptidase-N.1 Cyclocondensation with amines has been used to form triazine2 and pteridine ring systems.3 Also used as a precursor to α-diones.4
  • UsesCarrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.
  • DefinitionChEBI: An alpha-diketone that is butane substituted by oxo groups at positions 2 and 3. It is a metabolite produced during the malolactic fermentation.
  • PreparationFrom methyl ethyl ketone by converting to the isonitroso compound and then decomposing to diacetyl by hydrolysis with HCl; by fermentation of glucose via methyl acetyl carbinol.
  • Aroma threshold valuesDetection: 0.3 to 15 ppb: recognition: 5 ppb
  • Taste threshold valuesTaste characteristics at 50 ppm: sweet, buttery, creamy and milky.
  • General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid with a strong chlorine-like odor. Flash point 80°F. Less dense than water. Vapors heavier than air.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Soluble in water.
  • Reactivity Profile2,3-Butanedione is a flammable liquid, b.p. 88° C, moderately toxic. When heated to decomposition 2,3-Butanedione emits acrid smoke and fumes [Sax, 9th ed., 1996, p. 544].
  • Health HazardInhalation or contact with material may irritate or burn skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Vapors may cause dizziness or suffocation. Runoff from fire control may cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardHIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
  • Safety ProfileA poison by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. A skin irritant. Human inhalation hazard in popcorn manufacture. Human mutation data reported. Flammable liquid. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes. See also KETONES.
  • ToxicologyDiacetyl is an intensely yellowish or greenish-yellow mobile liquid. It has a very powerful and diffusive, pungent, buttery odor and typically used in flavor compositions, including butter, milk, cream, and cheese. Diacetyl was found to be mutagenic in Ames test conducted under various different conditions with Salmonella typhimurium strains. For example, diacetyl was mutagenic by TA100 in the absence of S9 metabolic activation at doses up to 40 mM/plate. It was mutagenic in a modified Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 with and without S9 activation. The acute oral LD50 of diacetyl in guinea pigs was calculated to be 990 mg/kg. The acute oral LD50 of diacetyl in male rats was calculated to be 3400 mg/kg, and in female rats, the LD50 was calculated to be 3000 mg/kg. When male and female rats were administered via gavage a daily dose of 1, 30, 90, or 540 mg/kg/day of diacetyl in water for 90 days, the high-dose produced anemia, decreased weight gain, increased water consumption, increased leukocyte count, and an increase in the relative weights of liver, kidneys, and adrenal and pituitary glands. The data for teratogenicity and carcinogenicity are not available. Although the FDA has affirmed diacetyl GRAS as a flavoring agent, low molecular weight carbonyls, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and glyoxal have been reported to possess a certain chronic toxicity.
  • CarcinogenicityDiacetyl was tested for its ability to induce primary lung tumors in strain A/He mice. The mice received three IP injections of diacetyl per week for 8 weeks and were killed 24 weeks after the first injection. The total dose of diacetyl given was 1.7 or 8.4 g/kg. The number of lung tumors in diacetyl exposed mice was not significantly different from the control mice.
    Inhalation carcinogenicity bioassays withWistar Han rats and B6C3F1 mice at exposure levels of 0, 12.5, 25, and 50 ppm are underway according to the National Toxicology Program.
  • Purification MethodsDry biacetyl over anhydrous CaSO4, CaCl2 or MgSO4, then distil it in a vacuum under nitrogen, taking the middle fraction and storing it at Dry-Ice temperature in the dark (to prevent polymerization). [Beilstein 1 IV 3644.]
2,3-Butanedione Preparation Products And Raw materials
2,3-Butanedione(431-03-8)Related Product Information
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