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Amyl acetate

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Amyl acetate Basic information
Amyl acetate Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:−100 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:142-149 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.876 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 4.5 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 4 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.402(lit.)
  • Flash point:75 °F
  • storage temp. Flammables area
  • solubility 10g/l
  • form Powder
  • color White
  • OdorPleasant banana-like; mild; characteristic banana- or pear-like odor.
  • explosive limit1.1-7.5%(V)
  • Water Solubility 10 g/L (20 ºC)
  • FreezingPoint -70.8℃
  • BRN 1744753
  • Henry's Law Constant10.73 at 37 °C (static headspace-GC, Bylaite et al., 2004)
  • Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 100 ppm (~525 mg/m3) (ACGIH, MSHA, and OSHA); IDLH 4000 ppm.
  • CAS DataBase Reference628-63-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceAcetic acid, pentyl ester(628-63-7)
  • EPA Substance Registry Systemn-Amyl acetate (628-63-7)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xi
  • Risk Statements 10-66
  • Safety Statements 23-25-24/25
  • RIDADR UN 1104 3/PG 3
  • WGK Germany 3
  • RTECS AJ1925000
  • 21
  • Autoignition Temperature680 °F &_& 714 °F
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 3
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29153930
  • Hazardous Substances Data628-63-7(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityAcute oral LD50 for rats 6,500 mg/kg (quoted, RTECS, 1985).
Amyl acetate Usage And Synthesis
  • UsesAs a solvent in lacquers, paints, leather polishes, inks, adhesives, degreasers, and cosmetics.
  • Chemical PropertiesAll isomers of amyl acetate are highly flammable, colorless to yellow, watery liquids.
  • Physical propertiesColorless liquid with a sweet, banana-like odor. A detection odor threshold concentration of 275 μg/m3 (52 ppbv) was reported by Punter (1983). Cometto-Mu?iz and Cain (1991) reported an average nasal pungency threshold concentration of 1,650 ppmv.
  • UsesBanana essence. Used as test odorant in studies of olfactory function and in studies of the psychosocial effects of odor.
  • UsesA colorless liquid made by adding sulfuric acid to a mixture of amyl alcohol and acetic acid with subsequent recovery by distillation. It is slightly soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol. Amyl acetate was used as one of the solvents in making celluloid film and as fuel for the Alteneck lamp, adopted as the standard light in sensitometry by the International Congress of Photography in 1889.
  • Usesn-Amyl acetate is used as a solvent forlacquers and paints; in fabrics’ printing; innail polish; and as a flavoring agent.
  • DefinitionChEBI: An acetate ester of pentanol.
  • Production Methodsn-Amyl acetate is the produced by the esterification of N-amyl alcohol with acetic acid.
  • Synthesis Reference(s)Synthetic Communications, 21, p. 1545, 1991 DOI: 10.1080/00397919108021051
    Tetrahedron Letters, 50, p. 395, 2009 DOI: 10.1016/j.tetlet.2008.11.024
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 45, p. 2915, 1980 DOI: 10.1021/jo01302a035
  • General DescriptionA mixture of isomers. A clear colorless liquid with a banana-like odor. Flash point varies from 65°F. to 95°F. Less dense (at 7.2 lb / gal) than water and slightly soluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors heavier than air.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Slightly soluble in water.
  • Reactivity ProfileAMYL ACETATE is an ester. Esters react with acids to liberate heat along with alcohols and acids. Strong oxidizing acids may cause a vigorous reaction that is sufficiently exothermic to ignite the reaction products. Heat is also generated by the interaction of esters with caustic solutions. Flammable hydrogen is generated by mixing esters with alkali metals and hydrides. Amyl acetate is incompatible with the following: Nitrates; strong oxidizers, alkalis & acids .
  • HazardFlammable, high fire risk. Explosive limits in air 1.1–7.5%.
  • Health Hazardn-Amyl acetate is a narcotic, an irritant tothe eyes and respiratory passage, and at highconcentrations, an anesthesia. Exposure toabout 300 ppm in air for 30 minutes mayproduce eye irritation in humans. Higherconcentrations (>1000 ppm) may produceheadache, somnolence, and narcotic effects.Exposure to 5200 ppm for 8 hours was lethalto rats. It is more toxic than the loweraliphatic esters. An LD50 value in rats iswithin the range 6000 mg/kg.
  • Fire HazardHIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water.
  • Chemical ReactivityReactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reaction; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
  • Safety ProfileModerately toxic by intraperitoneal route. Human systemic effects by inhalation: conjunctiva irritation, headache, and somnolence. A human eye irritant. Apparently more toxic than butyl acetate. Chronic toxicity is of a low order. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Moderately explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to flame. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes. See also ESTERS, AMYL ALCOHOL, and ACETIC ACID.
  • Potential Exposure(n-isomer): Primary irritant (w/o allergic reaction), (sec-isomer) Human Data. Amyl acetates are used as industrial solvents and in the manufacturing and dry-cleaning industry; making artificial fruit-flavoring agents; cements, coated papers, lacquers; in medications as an inflammatory agent; pet repellents, insecticides and miticide. Many other uses.
  • CarcinogenicityNot listed by ACGIH, California Proposition 65, IARC, NTP, or OSHA.
  • SourceIdentified among 139 volatile compounds identified in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo var. reticulates cv. Sol Real) using an automated rapid headspace solid phase microextraction method (Beaulieu and Grimm, 2001).
  • Environmental FateChemical/Physical. Hydrolyzes in water forming acetic acid and 1-pentanol.
    At an influent concentration of 985 mg/L, treatment with GAC resulted in an effluent concentration of 119 mg/L. The adsorbability of the carbon used was 175 mg/g carbon (Guisti et al., 1974).
  • ShippingUN1993 Flammable liquids, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid, Technical Name Required.
  • Purification MethodsShake the ester with saturated NaHCO3 solution until neutral, washed it with water, dry with MgSO4 and distil it. The ester has also been purfied by repeated fractional distillation through an efficient column or spinning band column. [Timmermann & Hennant-Roland J Chim Phys 52 223 1955, Mumford & Phillips J Chem Soc 75 1950, 1H NMR: Crawford & Foster Can J Phys 34 653 1956, Beilstein 2 IV 152.]
  • IncompatibilitiesVapors may form explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, nitrates. May soften certain plastics.
  • Waste DisposalDissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.
Amyl acetate Preparation Products And Raw materials
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