Basic information Description Chemical Properties Uses Toxicity Preparation Reactions Safety Related Supplier
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Lithium carbonate

Basic information Description Chemical Properties Uses Toxicity Preparation Reactions Safety Related Supplier
Lithium carbonate Basic information
Lithium carbonate Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:720 °C
  • Boiling point:1342 °C(lit.)
  • Density 2.11 g/mL at 25 °C
  • Flash point:1310°C
  • storage temp. Store at +5°C to +30°C.
  • solubility 13g/l
  • pkapKa 6.38 (Uncertain);10.25 (Uncertain)
  • form wire
  • color White
  • Specific Gravity2.11
  • PH10-11 (5g/l, H2O, 20℃)
  • Water Solubility 13 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Merck 14,5527
  • Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)pKsp: 1.6
  • BRN 3999191
  • CAS DataBase Reference554-13-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceLithium carbonate(554-13-2)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemLithium carbonate (554-13-2)
Safety Information
Lithium carbonate Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionLithium carbonate (molecular structure is Li2CO3, English name is lithium carbonate) as a colorless monoclinic crystal or white powder. Density is 2.11. Melting point is 618 ℃. Without deliquescence, it is stable in the air. Low solubility in water, the solubility decreases with increasing temperature. Solubility in cold water is greater than hot water. It is Soluble in dilute acid, insoluble in alcohol and acetone. Carbon dioxide is introduced into the aqueous suspension of lithium carbonate, lithium carbonate is converted to lithium acid carbonate and dissolved. If the solution of lithium acid carbonate is heated and then it releases carbon dioxide and precipitates lithium carbonate. The nature of the lithium carbonate may be used to remove impurities from lithium carbonate. Since lithium ion has a strong polarizability, thus thermal stability of lithium carbonate is worse than other alkali metal carbonate, when heated to above the melting point, it will decompose to produce carbon dioxide and lithium oxide.
    Lithium carbonate
  • Chemical PropertiesLithium carbonate is a white monoclinic crystalline solid. Typically for carbonates, lithium carbonate reacts with acids stronger than carbon dioxide or carbonic acid to yield the lithium salt of the acid and carbon dioxide. The reactions may be carried out in a solution, as an aqueous slurry, or, less effectively, with solid lithium carbonate.
    Lithium carbonate exhibits a low water solubility for an alkali metal carbonate. The solubility decreases with increasing temperature. It is not hygroscopic and is generally stable when exposed to the atmosphere. In fact, it is the normal end compound encountered when many basic lithium compounds are exposed to the atmosphere. Lithium carbonate may be dissolved in water by conversion to the hydrogen carbonate. Releasing carbon dioxide by heating the solution of lithium hydrogen carbonate causes reprecipitation of the lithium carbonate.
  • UsesThe lithium carbonate industry is a global high monopoly industry, the current production capacity is mainly concentrated in three foreign manufacturers of SQM, FMC, Chemetall and so on.
    Industrial lithium carbonate is used in the manufacture of other lithium salts, such as lithium chloride and lithium bromide and so on. It also acts as lithium oxide materials in enamel, glass, pottery and porcelain enamel, and it is also added to the electrolytic cell for electrolysis of aluminum to increase the current efficiency and reduce the internal resistance of the cell and the bath temperature. In medicine, it is mainly used for the treatment of mania, can improve their emotional disorders for schizophrenia. It has the effect of elevating peripheral leukocytes; can be used for synthetic rubber, dyes, semiconductor and military defense industry and so on; for the production of lithium tantalate, lithium niobate and other acoustic grade single crystal, optical grade monocrystalline etc; for preparation of the acoustic grade single crystal. 
    Battery grade lithium carbonate is mainly used for the preparation of lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, ternary materials, lithium iron phosphate and other lithium ion battery cathode materials; used in a matrix modifier; as aneuroprotective effect of lithium carbonate in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • ToxicityLithium carbonate has a significant stimulating effect, firstly has damage on the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and central nervous system. Toxicity order of lithium compounds is Li <LiCl <Li2CO3, maximum allowable concentration: Lithium condensation and fragmentation aerosol were 0.05 mg/m3 and 0.5 mg/m3.
    Wear rubber gloves and protective masks when working, in order to protect the respiratory organs against dust.
  • PreparationLithium carbonate is obtained as an intermediate product in recovery of lithium metal from its ore, spodumene (See Lithium). It is prepared by mixing a hot and concentrated solution of sodium carbonate with lithium chloride or sulfate solution.
    Li2SO4+ Na2CO3→Li2CO3+ Na2SO4
  • ReactionsLithium carbonate reacts with dilute acids, liberating carbon dioxide:
    Li2CO3+ HCl →LiCl + CO2+ H2O
    Thermal decompostion yields lithium oxide and carbon dioxide:
    Li2CO3 → Li2O + CO2
    Reaction with lime produces lithium hydroxide:
    Li2CO3+ Ca(OH)2→2LiOH + CaCO3
    The carbonate reacts with molten aluminum fluoride converting to lithium fluoride:
    3Li2CO3+ 2AlF3 → 6LiF + 3CO2+ Al2O3
    It combines with carbon dioxide in aqueous slurry forming soluble bicarbonate, which decomposes to carbonate upon heating:
    Li2CO3+ CO2+ H2O →2LiHCO3
    The bicarbonate can not be separated in solid form. It exists only in solution when carbonate dissolves in water saturated with CO2under pressure.
  • Chemical PropertiesLithium carbonate is a white hygroscopic powder.
  • Physical propertiesWhite monoclinic crystals; refractive index 1.428; density 2.11 g/cm3; melts at 723°C; decomposes at 1,310°C; low solubility in water (1.54 g/100g) at 0°C; 1.32 g//100g at 20°C), solubility decrease with temperature (0.72g/100g at 100°C); insoluble in acetone and ethanol.
  • UsesIn the production of glazes on ceramic and electrical porcelain.
  • UsesLithium carbonate is used as a compound for producing metallic lithium. Lithium carbonate is the result of treating the mineral spodumene with sulfuric acid and then adding calcium carbonate. It is used as an antidepressant.
  • PreparationLithium carbonate is prepared by the precipitation of lithium ion by carbonate ion from an aqueous solution. Still another process, which is carried out on a smaller scale, is the reaction of a solution of lithium hydroxide with carbon dioxide gas. Lithium carbonate precipitates and is recovered from the supernatant solution.
  • Definitionlithium carbonate: A white solid,Li2CO3; r.d. 2.11; m.p. 723°C; decomposesabove 1310°C. It is producedcommercially by treating the ore with sulphuric acid at 250°C andleaching the product to give a solutionof lithium sulphate. The carbonateis then obtained by precipitationwith sodium carbonate solution.Lithium carbonate is used in the preventionand treatment of manicdepressivedisorders. It is also usedindustrially in ceramic glazes.
  • IndicationsLithium inhibits thyroidal incorporation of I- into Tg, as well as the secretion of thyroid hormones, but it does not inhibit the activity of the Na+-I- symporter or the accumulation of I- within the thyroid. Lithium offers no particular advantage over drugs of the thionamide class but may be employed for temporary control of thyrotoxicosis in patients who are allergic to both thionamides and iodide.
  • brand nameEskalith (GlaxoSmithKline); Lithane (Bayer); Lithobid (JDS); Lithonate (Solvay Pharmaceuticals).
  • General DescriptionLithiumcarbonate (Eskalith, Lithane) and lithium citrate(Cibalith-S) are the salts commercially available in theUnited States.
  • Reactivity ProfileA base. Decomposed by acids with the evolution of carbon dioxide. Fluorine burns fiercely on contact with Lithium carbonate.
  • Safety ProfileHuman carcinogenic data. Poison by intraperitoneal and intravenous routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects by ingestion: toxic psychosis, tremors, changes in fluid intake, muscle weakness, increased urine volume, nausea or vomiting, allergic dermatitis. Human reproductive effects by ingestion: effects on newborn, including Apgar score changes and other neonatal measures or effects. Human teratogenic effects by ingestion: developmental abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal systems. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Experimental carcinogen producing leukemia and thyroid tumors. Human mutation data reported. Used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychoses. Incompatible with fluorine. See also LITHIUM COMPOUNDS.
  • Potential ExposureLithium carbonate is used in treatment of manic-depressive psychoses; to make ceramics and porcelain glaze; varnishes, dyes, pharmaceuticals, coating of arc-welding electrodes; battery alloys; nucleonics, luminescent paints; glass ceramics; lubricating greases; in aluminum production
  • ShippingUN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required
  • Purification MethodsCrystallise it from water. Its solubility decreases as the temperature is raised. The solubility in H2O is 1.3% at ~10o, and 0.7% at ~100o. [D.nges in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 987 1963, Caley & Elving Inorg Synth I 1 1939.]
  • IncompatibilitiesThe aqueous solution is a strong base. Reacts violently with acids, powdered calcium and fluorine.Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong acids, powdered calcium, fluorine, moisture. Corrodes aluminum, copper, zinc.
Lithium carbonate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Lithium carbonate(554-13-2)Related Product Information
Lithium carbonateSupplierMore
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