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Lithium hydroxide

Basic information Physical Properties Uses Preparation Reaction Safety Related Supplier
Lithium hydroxide Basic information
Lithium hydroxide Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:462 °C
  • Boiling point:925°C
  • Density 1.43
  • storage temp. Store at R.T.
  • solubility water: soluble71g/L at 20°C
  • form Solid
  • Specific Gravity2.54
  • color White to light yellow
  • PH12 (50g/l, H2O, 50℃)
  • Water Solubility 113 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Sensitive Air Sensitive & Hygroscopic
  • Merck 14,5534
  • Stability:Stable. Incompatible with moisture. strong acids, carbon dioxide.
  • CAS DataBase Reference1310-65-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceLithium hydroxide(1310-65-2)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemLithium hydroxide (Li(OH))(1310-65-2)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes C
  • Risk Statements 52/53-35-20/22-22-34-23
  • Safety Statements 45-36/37/39-26-22
  • RIDADR 2680
  • WGK Germany 1
  • RTECS OJ6307070
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 8
  • PackingGroup II
  • HS Code 28252010
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: 210 mg/kg
MSDS
  • Language:EnglishProvider:ACROS
  • Language:EnglishProvider:ALFA
Lithium hydroxide Usage And Synthesis
  • Physical PropertiesWhite tetragonal crystals; refractive index 1.464; density 1.46 g/cm3; melts at 450°C; decomposes at 924°C; dissolves in water (12.8g/100g at 20°C and 17.5 g/100g at 100°C); slightly soluble in alcohol.
    The monohydrate is white monoclinic crystalline solid; refractive index 1.460; density 1.51 g/cm3; soluble in water, more soluble than the anhydrous salt (22.3g and 26.8g/100g at 10 and 100°C, respectively); slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether.
  • UsesLithium hydroxide is used as an electrolyte in certain alkaline storage batteries; and in the production of lithium soaps. Other uses of this compound include its catalytic applications in esterification reactions in the production of alkyd resins; in photographic developer solutions; and as a starting material to prepare other lithium salts.
  • PreparationLithium hydroxide is prepared by the reaction of lithium carbonate with calcium hydroxide:
    Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2LiOH + CaCO3
    Calcium carbonate is filtered out and the solution is evaporated and crystallized.
    The product obtained is the monohydrate, LiOH•H2O. The anhydrous compound is obtained by heating the hydrate above 100°C in vacuum or carbon dioxide-free air.
    The hydroxide also may be prepared by treating lithium oxide with water.
  • ReactionLithium hydroxide is a base. However, it is less basic than sodium or potassium hydroxide.
    The compound undergoes neutralization reactions with acids:
    LiOH + HCl → LiCl + H2O
    Heating the compound above 800°C in vacuum yields lithium oxide:
    2LiOH Li2O + H2O
    Lithium hydroxide readily absorbs carbon dioxide, forming lithium carbonate:
    2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O
    Passing chlorine through a solution of lithium hydroxide yields lithium hypochlorite:
    LiOH + Cl2 → LiOCl + HCl
    Saponification of fatty acids with lithium hydroxide produces lithium soaps.
    LiOH + CH3(CH2)16COOH → CH3(CH2)16COOLi + H2O
    (stearic acid)        (lithium stearate)
  • Chemical PropertiesWhite solid
  • UsesLithium hydroxide is used in storage batteries and soaps and as CO2 absorber in spacecrafts.
  • DefinitionA white crystallinesolid, LiOH, soluble in water,slightly soluble in ethanol and insolublein ether. It is known as the monohydrate(monoclinic; r.d. 1.51) and inthe anhydrous form (tetragonal, r.d.1.46; m.p. 450°C; decomposes at924°C). The compound is made by reacting lime with lithium salts orlithium ores. Lithium hydroxide isbasic but has a closer resemblance togroup 2 hydroxides than to the othergroup 1 hydroxides (an example ofthe first member of a periodic grouphaving atypical properties).
  • General DescriptionA clear to water-white liquid which may have a pungent odor. Contact may cause severe irritation to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Lithium hydroxide may be toxic by ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. Lithium hydroxide is used to make other chemicals.
  • Air & Water ReactionsDilution with water may generate enough heat to cause steaming or spattering.
  • Reactivity ProfileLITHIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION neutralizes acids exothermically to form salts plus water. Reacts with certain metals (such as aluminum and zinc) to form oxides or hydroxides of the metal and generate gaseous hydrogen. May initiate polymerization reactions in polymerizable organic compounds, especially epoxides. May generate flammable and/or toxic gases with ammonium salts, nitrides, halogenated organics, various metals, peroxides, and hydroperoxides. May serve as a catalyst. Reacts when heated above about 84°C with aqueous solutions of reducing sugars other than sucrose, to evolve toxic levels of carbon monoxide [Bretherick, 5th Ed., 1995].
  • Health HazardTOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardNon-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion and subcutaneous routes. Mtldly toxic by inhalation. A corrosive. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Li.
  • Purification MethodsIt crystallises from hot water (3mL/g) as the monohydrate. It is dehydrated at 150o in a stream of CO2-free air. It sublimes at 220o with partial decomposition [Cohen Inorg Synth V 3 1957, Bravo Inorg Synth VII 1 1963].
Lithium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
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