Ammonium hydroxide Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-77°C
- Boiling point:36°C
- Density 0.91 g/mL at 20 °C
- vapor density 1.2 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- form Liquid, Single Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
- pka9.3(at 25℃)
- color Colorless
- Specific Gravityapproximate 0.96 (10%, 15℃)
- OdorStrong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm
- explosive limit27%
- Water Solubility Miscible with water.
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
- Merck 14,494
- BRN 3587154
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with copper, copper alloys, acids, galvanised iron, zinc, aluminium, bronze, dimethyl sulphate, mercury, alkali metals.
- CAS DataBase Reference1336-21-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemAmmonium hydroxide (1336-21-6)
- Hazard Codes C,N
- Risk Statements 34-50-22
- Safety Statements 26-36/37/39-45-61
- RIDADR UN 2672 8/PG 3
- WGK Germany 2
- RTECS BQ9625000
- F 34
- Autoignition Temperature690 °C (for ammonia)
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 8
- PackingGroup III
- HS Code 28142000
- Hazardous Substances Data1336-21-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
Ammonium hydroxide Usage And Synthesis
- UsesWeak solutions of NH4OH are ingredients in household cleaning ammonia. Concentrated ammonium hydroxide has many industrial uses, including the manufacture of rayon, fertilizers, refrigerants, rubber, pharmaceuticals, soaps lubricants, inks, explosives, and household cleaners.
- DescriptionAmmonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.
- Chemical PropertiesAmmonium Hydroxide is a colorless to milkywhite solution of ammonia, with a strong, irritating odor.Concentration of solutions range up to approximately 30% ammonia.
- Chemical PropertiesAMMONIUM HYDROXIDE exists only in the form of an aqueous solution. The compound is prepared by dissolving NH3 in H2O and usually is referred to in industrial trade as aqua ammonia. For industrial procurements, the concentration of NH3 in solution is normally specified in terms of the specific gravity (degrees Baum′e, °Be). Common concentrations are 20 °Be and 26 °Be. The former is equivalent to a sp gr of 0.933, or a concentration of about 17.8% NH3 in solution; the latter is equivalent to a sp gr of 0.897, or a concentration of about 29.4% NH3. These figures apply at a temperature of 60 °F (15.6 °C). Reagent grade NH4OH usually contains approximately 58% NH4OH (from 28 to 30% NH3 in solution).
- UsesAmmonium hydroxide is utilized in numerous applications:
- Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners.
- Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber.
- Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces.
- Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
- In furniture making, ammonium hydroxide is used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid.
- In food production, ammonium hydroxide is used as a leavening agent or acidity regulator and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent. Ammonium hydroxide is also used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" that is edible for cattle.
- In the tobacco industry, ammonium hydroxide is used for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid.
- Aqueous ammonia is used in the laboratory most often as a complexant and base in inorganic analysis. It can dissolve silver residues, and when used with copper (II) solutions, provides a deep blue coloration.
- UsesAmmonium Hydroxide is an alkaline that is a clear, colorless solu- tion of ammonia which is used as a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a surface finishing agent. it is used in baked goods, cheese, puddings, processed fruits, and in the production of caramels.
- Usesammonium hydroxide is used in cosmetic preparations as an alkali to neutralize excessive acidity in a formulation.
- DefinitionAmmonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.
- Application▼▲IndustryApplicationRole/benefitFood processingBaked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddingsLeavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkalineMeat productsAntimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to surviveCleaningHousehold and industrial cleansersCleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteriaAlkaline disinfectantMain ingredient/disinfects sarinAgricultureManufacture of fertilizersSource of nitrogenChemical manufactureManufacture of alkyl aminePrecursor/source of aminoCosmeticsHair dyes and colorspH adjusters/alkaline and safeChemical analysisDetermination of certain elements such as copper and nickelPrecipitant/ helps to precipitate various elementsOrganic synthesisAmide coupling reactionsReagent/source of NH3SNAr reactionsNucleophileCatalytic reduction of nitrilesAdditiveOthersWood stainingStain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acidsCircuit board manufacturingEtching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metalsTobacco processingProcessing aid/enhances tobacco flavorTreatment of straw for cattleProduce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattleCoagulation of natural rubber latexpH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
- General DescriptionAmmonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.
- Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.
- Reactivity ProfileAmmonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).
- Hazard Liquid and vapor extremely irritating, especially to eyes.
- Health HazardAmmonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
- Fire HazardNon-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
- Fire HazardAmmonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
- Flammability and ExplosibilityAmmonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
- Agricultural UsesAmmonium hydroxide is also known as ammonia solution, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia or ammonia liquor. It is the solution of ammonia in water and is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed ammonia (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.
- Agricultural UsesAqua ammonia, also called aqueous ammonia, ammonia liquor and ammonium hydroxide is ammonia dissolved in water to form a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water. It has a pressure of less than 0.7 kg/cm2 and is usually composed of 25 to 29.4% ammonia by weight (20 to 25 % nitrogen).
Ammonia dissolved in water is present principally as the ammonium ion (NH4+ )non-ionized molecular ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), sometimes referred to as an associated form of ammonium hydroxide, is also present. Hydrated molecules of ammonia (NH3) may also exist as NH3·H2O orNH3·2H2O.
Purified water is used for the reaction of ammonia and water in the production process. The methods for water purification are (a) a conventional sodium-form water-softening ion exchange resin, which replaces all cations present with sodium ions, (b) both hydrogenform cation resin and hydroxyl-form anion resin, resulting in total de-ionisation of water, or (c) reverse osmosis purification equipment which results in total deionization of water.
If water hardness is sufficiently low and/or if suitable filtration is available to remove the precipitate formed during the reaction of ammonia with water, the product can be manufactured without pre-treatment of water. For most water supplies, the precipitate is principally calcium carbonate.
During the reaction of ammonia with water, a large amount of heat is generated, which requires heat exchangers to control the temperature. The resulting aqua ammonia contains ammonium ions (NH4+), hydroxyl ions (OH-), and non-ionized ammonium hydroxide molecules (NH4OH).
The grade or strength of ammonium hydroxide available commercially is 26 degree Baume. The Baume reading refers to a specific gravity scale. A 26 degree Baume (Be) solution is equivalent to 29.4% by weight of ammonia dissolved in water. Since the Baume reading varies with temperature, the reading is standardized at minus 9.4℃. The density of the material compared to water is 0.8974. Ammonia products of 29.4% strength are also frequently described as 26° Be products, the freezing point of which is about minus 62.2℃.
An aqueous solution has a vapor pressure which varies with temperature. At ambient temperatures, the vapor pressure of 26°Be material equals atmospheric pressure. This permits the material to be shipped and stored in non-pressurized containers. This is the highest strength material generally available commercially.
Aqua ammonia should be stored in a closed container and kept cool, as otherwise the ammonia gas comes out of the solution and the strength reduces. The nitrogen concentration in aqua ammonia can be increased to 40 % by partial pressurization.
Aqua ammonia is corrosive to copper, copper alloys, aluminum alloys and galvanized surfaces. Aqua ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer. Its pH varies with concentration; typical values of pH are 11.7 at 1 % , 12.2at5%, 12.4at 10% and 13.5at30%concentration.
Transport and delivery costs limit the production of aqua ammonia (NH3) to small, local, fluid fertilizer plants. Aqua ammonia is regularly available in concentrations of 19%, 25 % and 29%. These are used for direct soil application or as inputs to produce other liquid fertilizers. Ammonia volatilizes quickly at temperatures above 10°C; therefore, aqua ammonia is usually injected into soil to depths of 5 to 10 cm. It should not be used in calcareous soil.
- Agricultural UsesThe solution of ammonia in water is called ammonia solution, commonly referred to as aqua ammonia. It is also called aqueous ammonia, ammonia liquor or ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.
- Safety ProfileA human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by inhalation and ingestion. A severe eye irritant. Human systemic irritant effects by ocular and inhalation routes. Mutation data reported. Incompatible with acrolein, nitromethane, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, halogens, (Au + aqua regia), HCl, HF, HNO3, oleum, ppropiolactone, propylene oxide, AgNO3, Ag2O, (Ag20 + C2H5OH), AgMn04, H2SO4. Dangerous; liquid can inflict burns. Use with adequate ventilation. When heated to decomposition it emits NH3 and NO2.
- Potential ExposureIt is used in detergents, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, fibers, and resins.
- storageAll work with this substance should be
conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and
impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact.
Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.
- ShippingUN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with .10% but not .35% ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
- IncompatibilitiesSolution is strongly alkaline. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, acids (exothermic reaction with strong mineral acids). Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with halogens, mercury oxide; silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by contact with β-propiolactone, silver nitrate; ethyl alcoho; silver permanganate; trimethylammonium amide; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride; selenium difluoride dioxide; boron halides; mercury, chlorine, iodine; bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach; amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin; aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, zinc, and their alloys.
- Waste DisposalDilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer.
Ammonium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsFOSAMINE AMMONIUML(-)-Epinephrine2-AMINO-3-PYRIDINECARBOXALDEHYDE HCL(1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE2-CHLORO-6-METHYLPYRIMIDIN-4-AMINEEthyl 3-amino-4,4,4-trifluorocrotonate2,4-Dimethylimidazole(6-BROMO-2-PYRIDINYL)-CARBAMIC ACID,1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL ESTERMethocarbamol2-ANTHRACENECARBOXYLIC ACID1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide, ammonium saltNeomycin sulfateIsepamicine2-Amino-6-bromonaphthalene2-Amino-3,6,8-naphthalenetrisulfonic acidFerric ammonium oxalate2,4-Dichlorobenzonitrile6-Chloropyridazin-3-amineAMMONIUM PHOSPHOMOLYBDATE5-methylquinolin-8-ol Direct Blue 199synthetic thickener KG-201Glufosinate-ammoniumemulsifier SOPE-15L-GLUTAMIC ACID, MONOAMMONIUM SALTN,1,5-Trimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide ,97%4-NitrobenzenesulfonamidePotassium gold(III) cyanideDoxycycline monohydrate1,5-Dimethyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide ,97%N,1,3-Trimethyl-1H-pyrazole-5-carboxamide ,97%1,3-DIMETHYL-1H-PYRAZOLE-5-CARBOXAMIDEcytochrome C solutionpolyalumium sulfate chlorideDL-Cystine2,6-DIMETHYL-3-HYDROXYPYRIDINEadhesive for electrostatic flocking EX-1Hydrofining catalyst FH-5aluminium oxide sol2,4,5-TRIMETHYL-3-OXAZOLINE
- Raw materialsSodium hydroxideHydrochloric acidMethanolSodium chlorideAmmonia
- Magnesium hydroxide AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE, ACS REAGENT (carboxymethyl)dimethyl(1-oxooctadecyl)ammonium hydroxide butyltris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium hydroxide (2-hydroxy-3-sulphopropyl)dimethyl[3-[(1-oxoisooctadecyl)amino]propyl]ammonium hydroxide [2-hydroxy-3-sulphopropyl]dimethyl[3-[(1-oxooctadecyl)amino]propyl]ammonium hydroxide AMMONIA-15N Hydroxide 2,7-Dinitrofluorene 2-FLUORO-7-NITROFLUORENE, 99 1-AMINO-7-NITROFLUORENE 2-DIMETHYLAMINO-3-NITROFLUORENE 3-nitrofluoren-9-one 2,4,7-TRINITRO-9-FLUORENONE 2-BROMO-7-NITROFLUORENE 2,4,5,7-TETRANITRO-9-FLUORENONE 2,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)nitrobenzene 2-acetamido-3-nitro-9-fluorenone
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