ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > API > Digestive system drugs > Antacid and Mucosal protective Drugs > Magnesium hydroxide
Basic information Description main application Chemical properties antacids Side Effects Uses Production method Sources Safety Related Supplier
Magnesium hydroxide Chemical Properties
- Melting point:350 °C(lit.)
- Density 2,36 g/cm3
- solubility 5 M HCl: 0.1 M, clear, yellow
- form powder
- color White
- Specific Gravity2.36
- PH Range9.5 - 10.5
- Water Solubility 0.9 mg/100 mL (18 ºC)
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.030
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.025
- Sensitive Air Sensitive
- Merck 14,5670
- Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)pKsp: 11.25
- CAS DataBase Reference1309-42-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceMagnesium hydroxide(1309-42-8)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemMagnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) (1309-42-8)
Magnesium hydroxide Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionMagnesium hydroxide is best known as the active ingredient in Milk of Magnesia, an antacid and laxative which has been used for 150 years. It forms a suspension in water, and its reaction with acid only dissolves it gradually, giving it long-lasting effects. At higher doses, rather than acid neutralization, its primary action is to hold water, as it is not absorbed by the large intestine, relieving constipation.
It is also used as a fire retardant and smoke repressor in various applications due to an endothermic decomposition reaction which takes place at 332°C, releasing magnesia and water. Further applications include wastewater treatment, as a fuel additive, and production of magnesium salts.
- main applicationMagnesium hydroxide is an excellent flame retardant for plastics and rubber products. In environmental protection, it is taken as flue gas desulfurization agent and can replace the caustic soda and lime as the neutralizer of acid-containing waste water and the absorbent of the heavy metal. In addition, it can also be used for the electronics industry, medicine, sugar refining, as insulation materials and for the manufacturing of other magnesium salt products.
Magnesium hydroxide is used as a flue gas desulfurization absorbent. In the 20th century, before the 1970s, most flue gas desulfurization applied sodium hydroxide method, limestone gypsum method. However, due to the secondary pollution of the byproducts to the environment, it has been switched to hydrogen magnesium oxide method since the 20th century; as acidic wastewater neutralizer; as the flame retardants of the synthetic resin; it was previously often used of bromine, phosphorus, chlorine and inorganic salt system. In these products, it had been mostly used of the aluminum hydroxide in these products. However, it has now been converted to magnesium hydroxide , mainly due to that in the thermoplastic resin, it can be increased of decomposition temperature to 350 ℃ or more with magnesium hydroxide; it is medically used for the control of gastric acid and laxatives; food additives, as a mineral additive, color protection agent, desiccant, alkali agent and aid of sugar production; used as a chemical reagent for measuring ammonium salt: Mg (OH) 2 + 2NH4Cl → MgCl2 + 2NH4OH.
This product has a variety of advantage including being smoke-free, non-toxic, non-corrosive, cheap and easy to get advantages. Moreover, the temperature of its decomposition for release of water is higher than aluminum hydroxide, being more suitable for the requirement of high-temperature processing. Magnesium hydroxide can be used as the flame retardants of polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, EPDM, unsaturated polyester and other plastics and rubber. It can also be used as the flame retardant of paint.
- Chemical propertiesIt appears as white crystals or powder, being soluble in dilute acid and ammonium salt solution, but almost insoluble in water and alcohol. The solubility in water (18 ° C) was 0.0009 g/100 g.
- antacidsAntacids are drugs that reduce the acidity of the gastric juice. Antacids can be used for the treatment of hyperacidity, gastric and duodenal ulcers. The ideal antacid should have strong anti-acid and long-term effect. Moreover, it is preferably that it doesn’t generate carbon dioxide during the neutralization of gastric acid and is not absorbed by the digestive tract. Even if absorbed, it should be harmless. The antacid, based on whether it can be absorbed by the digestive tract, is divided into absorbent antacids and non-absorbable antacids.
Magnesium hydroxide is a kind of non-absorption of antacid. This kind of drugs is not absorbed at all or only absorbed of a small amount by the digestive tract, thus having no systemic effects. Magnesium hydroxide has an effect similar to that of magnesium oxide. Its reaction with hydrochloric acid is slow and lasting effect. The fraction that is not reacted with hydrochloric acid can stay in the stomach for further reaction with the new secreted hydrochloric acid. It has similar laxative effect as the magnesium oxide. The above information is compiled and edited by Tongtong from Chemicalbook.
- Side EffectsTreatment of gastric acid with magnesium hydroxide, the following Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:
allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
feeling faint or lightheaded, falls
loss of appetite
unusually weak or tired
Side effects that usually do not require medical attention (report to your doctor or health care professional if they continue or are bothersome):
- Uses1,In medicine, it can be used as antacids and laxatives, can also be used for manufacturing of sugar and magnesium oxide and so on
2,Magnesium hydroxide is an excellent flame retardant for plastics and rubber products. In environmental protection, it can be used as flue gas desulfurization agent, being able to replace the caustic soda and lime as acid-containing waste water neutralizer. It can also used as oil additive with anti-corrosion and desulfurization effect. In addition, it can also be used for the electronics industry, medicine, sugar refining, for insulation materials and the manufacture of other magnesium salt products.
3,For sugar refining, pharmaceutical industry;
4,Used as analytical reagents, but also for the pharmaceutical industry
Mainly used as flame retardant.
- Production methodBrine-lime method:
Send the preliminarily purified and refined brine and digested lime-treated lime milk for precipitation in the sedimentation tank, and the flocculant is added to the obtained slurry, mixed thoroughly, and then enters the sedimentation tank for separation, filtering, washing, drying and pulverizing to obtain the finished product of magnesium hydroxide. Its
MgCl2 + Ca (OH) 2 → CaCl2 + Mg (OH) 2
. Brine-Ammonia water method:
Apply purification process to remove the sulfate, carbon dioxide, boron and other impurities of brine for using as raw material brine. Ammonia is taken as a precipitant in the reactor for precipitation reaction. Add a certain amount of crystal seed before the reaction and stir thoroughly. The ratio of brine to ammonia is 1: (0.9~0.93), and the temperature is controlled at 40 ℃. Add the flocculant after the end of the reaction, and apply filtering, washing, drying and crushing to the precipitate to obtain the finished product of magnesium hydroxide. The reaction equation is:
MgC12 + 2NH3 • H2O → Mg (OH) 2 + 2NH4Cl
The test method needs to be improved of the yield, shortened of the washing cycle and improved of the production process.
Magnesite-hydrochloric acid-ammonia water method: magnesite and anthracite or coke is subject to calcination in the vertical kiln to generate magnesium oxide and carbon dioxide. The magnesite powder is prepared into a magnesium chloride solution by reacting with a prescribed concentration of hydrochloric acid.
Magnesium chloride solution is reacted with a certain concentration of ammonia in the reactor. The resulting product is successively subject to washing, sedimentation, filtration separation, drying, grinding, to obtain the magnesium hydroxide products. If necessary, a surface treatment agent may be added for surface treatment.
- DescriptionA white, bulky powder. It dissolves in dilute acids, but is practically insoluble in water and in alcohol.
- Chemical PropertiesMagnesium hydroxide is another metal hydrate that decomposes endothermically, accompanied by the formation of water. It decomposes at 330 °C, which is 100 °C higher than alumina trihydrate, and can therefore be used in polymers that are processed at higher temperatures. Magnesium hydroxide is white, has an average particle size of 1–10 μm, density of 2.36 g/mL, refractive index of 1.58, and Mohs’ hardness of 2.00. Water loss on ignition is 31.8 wt %. Magnesium hydroxide contains 1.0 wt % Ca(OH)2 and is made by Solem Industries and Morton Thiokol.
- Chemical PropertiesMagnesium hydroxide, Mg(OHn, also known as magnesium hydrate and brucite, is a white powder that is very slightly soluble in water. It decomposes at 350°C (662 OF). It is used in the extraction of magnesium metal and as a reagent in the sulfite wood pulp process. Magnesium hydroxide is formed by the reaction of sodium hydroxide and a soluble magnesium salt solution. Brucite, a mineral composed of magnesium hydroxide with occasional traces of iron and manganese, is a white to grayish translucent secondary mineral found with serpentine and metamorphic dolomites.
- Physical propertiesMagnesium Hydroxide decomposes when heated to 360°C and forms
the oxide, MgO. It is very slightly soluble in water at
0.00122 g/100 ml and has a solubility product of
5.61×10-12. Crystals of Mg(OH)2 have a refractive
index of 1.559. Its heat of formation is –925 kJ/mol
with an entropy of 63 J/mol·K.
As a suspension in water, it is often called milk of magnesia because of its milk-like appearance. The solid mineral form of magnesium hydroxide is known as “brucite”.
It can be prepared by the metathesis reaction between any soluble magnesium salts and an alkali hydroxide such as sodium or even ammonium:
Magnesium hydroxide is a common component of antacids and laxatives. It interferes with the absorption of folic acid and iron. Its low solubility makes it a weak base. Another method of commercial manufacture of magnesium hydroxide involves the chloride obtained from seawater. After the chloride is recrystallized several times to obtain a level of purity, it is calcined at about 1000°C:
MgCl2·6H2O → MgCl2＋6H2O
- OccurrenceMagnesium Hydroxide occurs naturally as the mineral brucite. Brucite, usually found as a low temperature, hydrothermal vein mineral associated with calcite, aragonite, talc, or magnesite, appears as a decomposition product of magnesium silicates associated with serpentine, dolomite, magnesite, and chromite. Brucite also occurs as a hydrated form of periclase, and is found in serpentine, marble, chlorite schists, and in crystalline limestone.
- UsesSuspensions of magnesium hydroxide in water (milk
of magnesia) are used as an antacid to neutralize
stomach acid, and a laxative. This may cause diarrhea
and loss of potassium with concomitant muscle cramps.
Magnesium hydroxide is also used as an antiperspirant
armpit deodorant. Milk of magnesia is useful against
“canker sores” (aphthous ulcer) when used topically.
Milk of magnesia is sold for medical use to alleviate constipation,
but also to relieve indigestion and heartburn.
Milk of magnesia is also used as a folk remedy, applied and massaged in (a few minutes before washing), to relieve symptoms of “seborrhea” and “dandruff”. It is also said to be used for seborrheic dermatitis, which is a drying and flaking of the skin similar to dandruff but often occurring on the face.
Magnesium hydroxide powder is used industrially as a nonhazardous alkali to neutralize acidic wastewaters. Solid magnesium hydroxide has also smoke suppressing and fire retarding properties. Common uses of magnesium hydroxide as a fire retardant include plastics, roofing, and coatings. Magnesium hydroxide is marketed as a slurry for use as a neutralizing agent in the treatment of acidic wastewaters.
- UsesMagnesium Hydroxide is an alkali that is a general purpose food additive. it exists as a white powder and has poor solubility in water and in alcohol. in frozen desserts it will increase the tendency for fat globules to clump, which results in an increase in dryness. it reacts with triglycerides in fatty acids to form soaps. it also functions as a drying agent in foods.
- UsesAntacid; osmotic laxative.
- DefinitionChEBI: A magnesium hydroxide in which the magnesium atom is bound to two hydroxide groups.
- Definitionmagnesium hydroxide: A white solid compound, Mg(OH)2; trigonal;r.d. 2.36; decomposes at 350°C. Magnesium hydroxide occurs naturally as the mineral brucite and can be prepared by reacting magnesium sulphate or chloride with sodium hydroxide solution. It is used in the refining of sugar and in the processing of uranium. Medicinally it isimportant as an antacid (milk of magnesia) and as a laxative.
- brand nameOxaine M (Wyeth-Ayerst); Phillips Magnesia Tablets (Sterling Health U.S.A.); Phillips Milk of Magnesia Liquid (Sterling Health U.S.A.).
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsThe synthesis of magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2]
is based on a metathesis reaction in which magnesium salts are reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide.
Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) has only limited solubility in water and the resulting suspension is called milk of magnesia, which is commonly used as an antacid and is known to be a mild base.
Magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] is present in antacids because of its laxative properties and is also the main ingredient of the ‘milk of magnesia’. The ‘milk of magnesia’ is a suspension of Mg(OH)2 in water, which has a milk-like appearance because of the low aqueous solubility of Mg(OH)2. It is considered as a strong electrolyte and a weak base and is given to the patient for indigestion and heartburn. The alkaline suspension neutralises any excess stomach acid and therefore works as an antacid. It also stimulates intestinal movement, as the magnesium ions increases the water content in the intestines through its osmotic effect and as a result softens any faeces present.
- Safety ProfileModerately toxic by intraperitoneal route. Human systemic effects: chlorine level changes, coma, somnolence. Incompatible with maleic anhydride, phosphorus. See also MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS.
- Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsMagnesium hydroxide in combination with aluminum salts have
been used in veterinary medicine for the adjunctive treatment of
esophagitis, gastric hyperacidity, peptic ulcer and gastritis. In foals
and small animals, because of difficulty in administration, the frequent
dosing that is often required, and availability of the histamine-
2 blocking agents (cimetidine, ranitidine, etc.), proton-pump
inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole) and sucralfate, antacids have largely
been relegated to adjunctive roles in therapy for these indications.
Magnesium hydroxide alone (milk of magnesia) is sometimes used
as an oral laxative in small animals.
In ruminants, magnesium hydroxide is used to increase rumen pH and as a laxative in the treatment of rumen overload syndrome (aka acute rumen engorgement, rumen acidosis, grain overload, engorgement toxemia, rumen impaction).
Magnesium hydroxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsPotassium carbonateMagnesium oxideCalcium chloride hexahydrateCalcium chloride dihydrateCalcium lactateMagnesium fluorosilicateMagnesium carbonate basicMagnesium fluosilicateMagnesium bromideMagnesium hydroxide,activatedMAGNESIUM L-GLUTAMATE TETRAHYDRATEMagnesium peroxideMAGNESIUMHUMATEMagnesium bromide hexahydratemagnesium oxide whisker：magnesia whiskerbasic magnesium sulfate whiskei
- Raw materialsSodium carbonateMagnesium sulfateCARBON DIOXIDEMagnesium oxideMagnesium sulfateMagnesium carbonateCoke (coal) BITTERN
- MAGNESIUM CYCLOHEXANEBUTYRATE MAGNESIUM OROTATE Magnesium ethoxide FUMARIC ACID MONOETHYL ESTER, MAGNESIUM SALT Magnesium salicylate Sodium L-aspartate MAGNESIUM URANYL ACETATE Magnesium acetate MAGNESIUM BEHENATE L-ASPARTIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT MAGNESIUM ACETYLACETONATE Magnesium hydroxide Magnesium stearate Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Magnesium Hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Magnesium oxide
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