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Clindamycin

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Clindamycin Basic information
Clindamycin Chemical Properties
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Clindamycin Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionClindamycin, a derivative of lincomycin, was fi rst isolated from Streptomyces lincolnesis in 1962 and became commercially available in 1966. It replaced lincomycin use because of its better absorption and clinical spectrum. It is active against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic organisms.
  • UsesClindamycin is a semi-synthetic analogue of lincomycin, prepared by chloride substitution of the exocyclic sugar hydroxy group. This affords a more hydrophobic compound with improved pharmacodynamics. Like other members of the lincosamide family, clindamycin is a broad spectrum antibiotic with activity against anaerobic bacteria and protozoans. Clindamycin acts by binding to the 23S ribosomal subunit, blocking protein synthesis. Clindamycin has been extensively studied with over 8,000 literature citations.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A carbohydrate-containing antibiotic that is the semisynthetic derivative of lincomycin, a natural antibiotic.
  • IndicationsClindamycin (Cleocin), 300 to 450 mg/day, is an extremely effective agent for acne.
  • brand nameCleocin (Pharmacia & Upjohn).
  • Biological ActivityClindamycin is active against most anaerobes including most anaerobic grampositive cocci, nonspore forming bacilli, Clostridium (except C. diffi cile and some non-perfringens species), anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (except Fusobacterium varium ), and anaerobic gram-positive nonspore forming bacilli.
    It is active against most aerobic gram-positive organisms, including viridans streptococci, most strains of pneumococci, and other strains of streptococcal organisms (except Enterococcus ). It is active against MSSA.
  • Contact allergensThis lincosanide antibiotic is used in topical form for acne, or systemically has been responsible for exanthematous rashes and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.
  • Mechanism of actionClindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The use of clindamycin with macrolides is not recommended since both of them compete for binding sites to the 50S subunit.
  • Clinical UseClindamycin is effective in the treatment of most infections secondary to anaerobes and gram-positive cocci. It can be used for anaerobic pulmonary, intra-abdominal, gynecologic, pelvic, diabetic foot, and decubitus ulcer infections. Another appropriate agent should be added since the majority of these infections are polymicrobial. It can also be used as an alternative agent for patients with severe penicillin allergy. It is also used to treat Clostridium perfringens infection.
    Oral preparations of clindamycin and vaginal cream are alternatives to metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Topical solution is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and rosacea.
    Clindamycin is extensively metabolized by the liver and the half-life is prolonged in patients with cirrhosis and hepatitis. Dose reductions are recommended in patients with acute liver disease.
  • Side effectsThe most commonly observed adverse effect is diarrhea. The reported incidence of C. difficile colitis in patients treated with clindamycin varies from 0.1 to 10%. The syndrome may be fatal. If the patient develops C. difficile colitis, clindamycin should be discontinued and the patient should be treated for C. difficile . Other side effects include rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal distension, anorexia, and transient elevation of liver enzymes. Other less common events, such as fever, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.
  • Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsTopical clindamycin is an optional topical treatment for feline acne.
    Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosome; primary activity is against anaerobic and grampositive aerobic bacteria. For more information on the pharmacology of clindamycin, refer to the monograph for systemic use found in the main section.
Clindamycin Preparation Products And Raw materials
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