Minocycline hydrochloride Chemical Properties
- Melting point:205-210° (dec)
- Boiling point:813℃
- Flash point:>110°(230°F)
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility Sparingly soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol (96 per cent). It dissolves in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates.
- form crystalline
- color yellow
- Water Solubility Freely soluble in water
- Merck 14,6202
- Stability:Light Sensitive
- CAS DataBase Reference13614-98-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
Minocycline hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical PropertiesYellow Crystalline Powder
- OriginatorMinocin,Lederle ,US,1971
- UsesSecond generation tetracycline antibiotic. Antibacterial.
- UsesMinocycline hydrochloride is a salt prepared from minocycline, taking advantage of the two basic dimethylamino groups which protonate and readily form a salt from hydrochloric acid solutions. The hydrochloride is the preferred formulation for pharmaceutical applications. Like all tetracyclines, minocycline shows broad spectrum antibacterial and antiprotozoan activity and acts by binding to the 30S and 50S ribosomal sub-units, blocking protein synthesis.
- Manufacturing ProcessPreparation of 7-(N,N'-Dicarbobenzyloxyhydrazino)-6-Demethyltetracycline: A1.0 g portion of 6-demethyltetracycline was dissolved in a mixture of 9.6 ml oftetrahydrofuran and 10.4 ml of methanesulfonic acid at -10°C. The mixturewas allowed to warm to 0°C. A solution of 0.86 g of dibenzyl azodicarboxylatein 0.5 ml of tetrahydrofuran was added dropwise and the mixture was stirredfor 2 hours while the temperature was maintained at 0°C. The reactionmixture was added to ether. The product was filtered off, washed with etherand then dried. The 7-(N,N'-dicarbobenzyloxyhydrazino)-6-demethyltetracycline was identified by paper chromatography.
Reductive Methylation of 7-(N,N'-Dicarbobenzyloxyhydrazino)-6-Demethyl-6-Deoxytetracycline to 7-Dimethylamino-6-Demethyl-6-Deoxytetracycline: Asolution of 100 mg of 7(N,N'-dicarbobenzyloxyhydrazino)-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline in 2.6 ml of methanol, 0.4 ml of 40% aqueous ormaldehyde solution and 50 mg of 5% palladium on carbon catalyst washydrogenated at room temperature and two atmospheres pressure. Uptake ofthe hydrogen was complete in 3 hours. The catalyst was filtered off and thesolution was taken to dryness under reduced pressure. The residue wastriturated with ether and then identified as 7-dimethylamino-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline by comparison with an authentic sample, according to USPatent 3,483,251.
- brand nameDynacin (Medicis); Minocin (Lederle); Minocin (Triax); Solodyn (Medicis).
- Therapeutic FunctionAntibiotic
- General DescriptionMinocycline, 7-dimethylamino-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline(Minocin, Vectrin), the most potent tetracycline currentlyused in therapy, is obtained by reductive methylationof 7-nitro-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline. It was releasedfor use in the United States in 1971. Because minocycline,like doxycycline, lacks the 6-hydroxyl group, it is stablein acids and does not dehydrate or rearrange to anhydroor lactone forms. Minocycline is well absorbed orally togive high plasma and tissue levels. It has a very long serumhalf-life, resulting from slow urinary excretion and moderateprotein binding. Doxycycline and minocycline, alongwith oxytetracycline, show the least in vitro calcium bindingof the clinically available tetracyclines. The improved distributionproperties of the 6-deoxytetracyclines have been attributedto greater lipid solubility.
Perhaps the most outstanding property of minocyclineis its activity toward Gram-positive bacteria, especiallystaphylococci and streptococci. In fact, minocycline hasbeen effective against staphylococcal strains that are resistantto methicillin and all other tetracyclines, includingdoxycycline. Although it is doubtful that minocyclinewill replace bactericidal agents for the treatment of lifethreateningstaphylococcal infections, it may become auseful alternative for the treatment of less serious tissueinfections. Minocycline has been recommended for thetreatment of chronic bronchitis and other upper respiratorytract infections. Despite its relatively low renal clearance,partially compensated for by high serum and tissuelevels, it has been recommended for the treatment of urinary tract infections. It has been effective in the eradicationof N. meningitidis in asymptomatic carriers.
- Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsMinocycline may be useful for treating Brucellosis (in combination with aminoglycosides), Lyme disease, and certain nosocomial infections where other more commonly used drugs are ineffective. It has been investigated as adjunctive therapy for treating hemangiosarcomas, but early results have been disappointing.
Minocycline hydrochloride Preparation Products And Raw materials
- 2-PYRIMIDINAMINE, 4-(3,4-DIHYDRO-1-METHYL-2(1H)-ISOQUINOLINYL)-N-(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-5,6-DIMETHYL-, MONOHYDROCHLORIDE 8-Azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3-chloro-8-methyl- Venlafaxine hydrochloride NU1025 Minocycline Impurity 9 7-Didemethyl Minocycline Dihydrochloride (>85% by HPLC) Tilmicosin phosphate Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride Erythromycin thiocyanate Zoledronic acid Veliparib RG108 Forskolin Penicillin G sodium salt Fisetin Starch Naringenin Mianserin hydrochloride
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