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Venlafaxine hydrochloride

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Venlafaxine hydrochloride Basic information
Venlafaxine hydrochloride Chemical Properties
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Venlafaxine hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionVenlafaxine hydrochloride, a novel phenethylamine derivative, was introduced in the U.S.A. as an antidepressant. Venlafaxine is reported to be the first in the class of the second-generation of antidepressants with dual serotonidnorepinephrine reuptake inhibitory activity. Venlafaxine lacks any affinity for muscarinic, cholinergic, histaminergic and noradrenergic receptors and therefore, has an unusually favorable side effect profile compared with classical tricyclic antidepressants and shows less cardiotoxicity. In addition, venlafaxine has a rapid onset of action that makes it unique among the antidepressant agents. Other indications for venlafaxine include the treatment of obsessive and panic disorders, and obesity. Both enantiomers of venlafaxine were reported to have similar biological activity.
  • Chemical PropertiesWhite Crystalline Powder
  • OriginatorWyeth-Ayerst (U.S.A.)
  • UsesA selective serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor. Used as an antidepressant
  • UsesVenlafaxine hydrochloride  is an inhibitor of reuptake of both serotonin (IC50 = 0.21 μM) and norepinephrine (IC50 = 0.64 μM). It is effective in vitro and in vivo and against human as well as rat receptors. As an antidepressant, it is properly placed in the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor class.[Cayman Chemical]
  • UsesAn inhibitor of ST and SLC6A2.
  • Manufacturing Process1-[Cyano(-methoxyphenyl)methyl]cyclohexanol
    p-Methoxyphenylacetonitrile (50 gm, 0.3 mole) was added to dry tetrahydrofuran (250 ml) and the solution cooled to -70°C under nitrogen. n- Butyl lithium in hexane (210 ml, 0.3 mole) was added dropwise, with stirring. The temperature was maintained below -50°C and a yellow precipitate appeared. After the addition was complete, the reaction mixture was maintained below -50°C for 30 minutes and cyclohexanone (35 ml, 0.3 mole)was added. After a further 45 minutes below -50°C the temperature was allowed to rise to 0°C and a saturated ammonium chloride solution was added. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer extracted with diethyl ether. The combined organic solution was washed with brine, dried over magnesium sulfate and evaporated. The product crystallized (25.2 gm, melting point 125°-127°C). The structure was confirmed by N.M.R. and mass spectral analysis.
    1-[Cyano(p-methoxyphenyl)methyl]cyclohexanol (12 g, 0.05 mole) was dissolved on warming in a mixture of ammonia-ethanol (20% v/v, 250 ml) and hydrogenated in a Parr apparatus over 5% rhodium an alumina (2.8 gm). The catalyst was filtered, washed well with ethanol and the combined filtrate evaporated and dried under vacuum yielding an oil (12 gm). Thin layer chromatography: single spot, ninhydrin positive [chloroform-methanol-acetic acid (80:10:10 v/v)].
    1-[2-Amino-1-(p-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]cyclohexanol (12 gm; 0.048 mole) was treated with a mixture of formaldehyde (11 ml), formic acid (14.5 ml, 88%) and water (125 ml) and heated at 100°C for five hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and extracted with ethyl acetate. This extract was discarded. The aqueous residue was cooled in ice, rendered basic by the addition of solid potassium hydroxide, saturated with sodium chloride and extracted 3 times with ethyl acetate. The extract was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous potassium carbonate and evaporated to an oily residue (8 gm). This mixture of products was chromatographed on 1 kg of Mallinckrodt Silicar CC7 silica gel and the progress of the chromatography was monitored by thin layer chromatrography using a system comprising ethanol:2 N ammonia:ethyl acetate:cyclohexane 45:8:100:100 (v/v). Fractions containing the desired product were combined and the hydrochloride salt prepared using 4 N HCl in isopropanol. The yield of the free base was 4.6 gm of 1-[(2-dimethylamino)- 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-cyclohexanol. The hydrochloride (venlafaxine): melting point 215°-217°C. The structure was confirmed by mass spectral analysis and N.M.R. analysis.
  • brand nameEffexor (Wyeth).
  • Therapeutic Function Antidepressant
  • Biological ActivityDual serotonin/noradrenalin re-uptake inhibitor that displays ~ 30-fold higher affinity for SERT than NET (K i values are 82 and 2480 nM respectively). Antidepressant; increases swimming and climbing behavior in the forced-swim test in rats.
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