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Hexane

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Hexane Basic information
Hexane Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-95 °C
  • Boiling point:68.95 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.659 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 3.5 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 40 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.388
  • Flash point:30 °F
  • storage temp. Store at RT.
  • solubility Very soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether and chloroform.
  • form Liquid
  • color Colorless
  • Specific Gravity0.660 (20/4℃)
  • OdorMild gasoline-like odor detectable at 65 to 248 ppm
  • Relative polarity0.009
  • explosive limit1.0-8.1%(V)
  • Water Solubility insoluble
  • λmaxλ: 200 nm Amax: ≤0.70
    λ: 225 nm Amax: ≤0.10
    λ: 250 nm Amax: ≤0.01
  • Merck 14,4694
  • BRN 1730733
  • Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 50 ppm (~175 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 500 ppm (~1750 mg/m3) (OSHA); IDLH 5000 ppm (NIOSH).
  • Stability:Stable. Incompatible with oxidizing agents, chlorine, fluorine, magnesium perchlorate. Highly flammable. Readily forms explosive mixtures with air. Note low flash point.
  • InChIKeyVLKZOEOYAKHREP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS DataBase Reference110-54-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceHexane(110-54-3)
Safety Information
MSDS
  • Language:EnglishProvider:ALFA
Hexane Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesColorless liquid
  • Chemical Propertiesn-Hexane is a highly flammable liquid, usually isolated from crude oil, and has extensive industrial applications as a solvent in adhesive bandage factories and other industries. It is highly toxic, triggering several adverse health effects, i.e., nausea, skin irritation, dizzi- ness, numbness of limbs, CNS depression, vertigo, and respiratory tract irritation to ani- mals and humans. Occupational exposure of industrial workers has demonstrated motor polyneuropathy. Workers associated with long-term glue sniffi ng showed adverse effects in the form of degeneration of axons and nerve terminals.
  • Chemical Propertiesn-Hexane is a highly flammable, colorless, volatile liquid with a gasoline-like odor. The water/odor threshold is 0.0064 mg/L and the air/odor threshold is 230 875 milligram per cubic meter.
  • UsesSuitable for HPLC, spectrophotometry, environmental testing
  • UsesDetermining refractive index of minerals; filling for thermometers instead of mercury, usually with a blue or red dye; extraction solvent for oilseed processing.
  • Usesn-Hexane is a chief constituent of petroleumether, gasoline, and rubber solvent. It is usedas a solvent for adhesives, vegetable oils,and in organic analysis, and for denaturingalcohol.
  • DefinitionA liquid alkane obtained from the light fraction of crude oil. The principal use of hexane is in gasoline and as a solvent.
  • DefinitionChEBI: An unbranched alkane containing six carbon atoms.
  • General DescriptionClear colorless liquids with a petroleum-like odor. Flash points -9°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Vapors heavier than air. Used as a solvent, paint thinner, and chemical reaction medium.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Insoluble in water.
  • Reactivity ProfileHEXANE may be sensitive to light. Hexane may also be sensitive to prolonged exposure to heat. Hexane can react vigorously with oxidizing materials. This would include compounds such as liquid chlorine, concentrated O2, sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. Hexane is also incompatible with dinitrogen tetraoxide. Hexane will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings. .
  • HazardFlammable, dangerous fire risk.
  • Health HazardHexane and related aliphatic hydrocarbons exhibit only slight acute toxicity by all routes of exposure. The liquid may cause irritation upon contact with skin or eyes. Hexane vapor (and the vapor of other volatile hydrocarbons) at high concentrations (>1000 ppm) is a narcotic, and inhalation may result in lightheadedness, giddiness, nausea, and headache. Ingestion of hexane or other hydrocarbons may lead to aspiration of the substance into the lungs, causing pneumonia. Prolonged skin exposure may cause irritation due to the ability of these solvents to remove fats from the skin. Hexane is regarded as a substance with good warning properties. Chronic exposure to hexane or other aliphatic hydrocarbons may cause central nervous system toxicity. Hexane has not been found to be a carcinogen or reproductive toxin in humans.
  • Health HazardINHALATION causes irritation of respiratory tract, cough, mild depression, cardiac arrhythmias. ASPIRATION causes severe lung irritation, coughing, pulmonary edema; excitement followed by depression. INGESTION causes nausea, vomiting, swelling of abdomen, headache, depression.
  • Health Hazardn-Hexane is a respiratory tract irritant andat high concentrations a narcotic. Its acutetoxicity is greater than that of n-pentane.Exposure to a concentration of 40,000 ppmfor an hour caused convulsions and death inmice. In humans a 10-minute exposure toabout 5000 ppm may produce hallucination,distorted vision, headache, dizziness, nausea,and irritation of eyes and throat. Chronicexposure to n-hexane may cause polyneuritis.
    The metabolites of n-hexane injected inguinea pigs were reported as 2,5- hexanedioneand 5-hydroxy-2-hexanone, which arealso metabolites of methyl butyl ketone(DiVincenzo et al. 1976). Thus methyl butylketone and n- hexane should have similartoxicities. The neurotoxic metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione, however, is produced considerablyless in n-hexane. However, in the caseof hexane, the neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione is produced to a much lesserextent. Continuous exposure to 250 ppmn-hexane produced neurotoxic effects in animals. Occupational exposure to 500 ppmmay cause polyneuropathy (ACGIH 1986).
    Inhalation of n-hexane vapors have shownreproductive effects in rats and mice.
  • Fire HazardFlash Point (°F): -7 ℃; Flammable Limits in Air (%): 1.2-7.7; Fire Extinguishing Agents: Foam, dry chemical, or carbon dioxide; Fire Extinguishing Agents Not To Be Used: Not pertinent; Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Not pertinent; Behavior in Fire: Vapors may explode; Ignition Temperature (°F): 437; Electrical Hazard: Class I, Group D; Burning Rate: 7.3 mm/min.
  • Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: Vapors may explode
  • Fire HazardHexane is extremely flammable (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Hexane vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.1 to 7.5 % (by volume). Hydrocarbons of significantly higher molecular weight have correspondingly higher vapor pressures and therefore present a reduced flammability hazard. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for hexane fires.
  • Flammability and ExplosibilityHexane is extremely flammable (NFPA rating = 3), and its vapor can travel a considerable distance to an ignition source and "flash back." Hexane vapor forms explosive mixtures with air at concentrations of 1.1 to 7.5 % (by volume).
    Hydrocarbons of significantly higher molecular weight have correspondingly higher vapor pressures and therefore present a reduced flammability hazard. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for hexane fires.
  • Chemical ReactivityReactivity with Water: No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
  • Potential Exposuren-Hexane is industrial chemical, emul sifier, in manufacture of plastics, resins; as a solvent, par ticularly in the extraction of edible fats and oils; as a laboratory reagent; and as the liquid in low temperature thermometers. Technical and commercial grades consist of 45 85% hexane, as well as cyclopentanes, isohexane, and 1% to 6% benzene.
  • First aidIf this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, includ ing resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medi cal attention. Do not induce vomiting.
  • storagehexane should be used only in areas free of ignition sources, and quantities greater than 1 liter should be stored in tightly sealed metal containers in areas separate from oxidizers.
  • ShippingUN1208 Hexanes, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3-Flammable liquid.
  • Purification MethodsPurify as for n-heptane. Modifications include the use of chlorosulfonic acid or 35% fuming H2SO4 instead of conc H2SO4 in washing the alkane, and final drying and distilling from sodium hydride. Unsaturated impurities can be removed by shaking the hexane with nitrating acid (58% H2SO4, 25% conc HNO3, 17% water, or 50% HNO3, 50% H2SO4), then washing the hydrocarbon layer with conc H2SO4, followed by H2O, drying, and distilling over sodium or n-butyl lithium. It can also be purified by distillation under nitrogen from sodium benzophenone ketyl solubilised with tetraglyme. Also purify it by passage through a silica gel column followed by distillation [Kajii et al. J Phys Chem 91 2791 1987]. It is a FLAMMABLE liquid and a possible nerve toxin. [Beilstein 1 IV 338.] Rapid purification: Distil, discarding the first forerun and stored over 4A molecular sieves.
  • IncompatibilitiesMay form explosive mixture with air. Contact with strong oxidizers may cause fire and explo sions. Contact with dinitrogen tetraoxide may explode @ 28℃.Attacks some plastics, rubber and coatings. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors.
  • Waste DisposalDissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinera tor equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
Hexane Preparation Products And Raw materials
Hexane(110-54-3)Related Product Information
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