ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Analytical Chemistry > Liquid Chromatography > HPLC with solvent > PETROLEUM ETHER
PETROLEUM ETHER Chemical Properties
- Melting point:-40℃
- Boiling point:90-100 °C
- Density 0.77 g/mL at 20 °C
- vapor density 2.5 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 25.8 psi ( 55 °C)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:−57 °F
- storage temp. Store at room temperature.
- form Liquid
- color APHA: ≤10
- Specific Gravity0.715 （20/4℃）
- OdorGasoline or kerosene
- explosive limit8%
- Water Solubility Insoluble in water.
- λmaxλ: 210 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 220 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 230 nm Amax: 0.10
λ: 240 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 260-400 nm Amax: 0.01
- Merck 14,5489
- Exposure limitsTLV-TWA 300 ppm (～1350 mg/m3) (ACGIH), 75 ppm (～350 mg/m3) (NIOSH); TLV-STEL 400 ppm (ACGIH).
- Stability:Stable. Extremely flammable. Avoid strong oxidizing agents, all sources of ignition. As a consequence of its low flashpoint, mixtures of this material with air may ignite upon contact with hot surfaces - a naked flame is not required.
- EPA Substance Registry SystemLigroine (8032-32-4)
- Hazard Codes Xn,T,F,N,F+
- Risk Statements 12-65-45-67-51/53-38-11-22-50/53-10-39/23/24/25-23/24/25-46-66-52/53
- Safety Statements 62-45-53-61-16-60-23-36/37-24
- RIDADR UN 3295 3/PG 2
- WGK Germany 3
- RTECS OI6180000
- Autoignition Temperature475 °F
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 3
- PackingGroup I
- HS Code 27101299
- Hazardous Substances Data8032-32-4(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 intravenous in mouse: 40mg/kg
PETROLEUM ETHER Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionPetroleum ether, a petroleum distillation fraction, is a mixture of low molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons (mostly pentanes and hexanes) with a low boiling range, typically around 30-60oC. Its name is derived from its origin and its ease of evaporation.The majority components include paraffins, olefins, naphthenes, aromatics, and about 10%–40% ethyl alcohol。
Petroleum ether is commonly used as a nonpolar solvent for oils, fats, and waxes. Petroleum ether is used in pharmaceutical industries as a solvent to isolate compounds, e.g. petroleum ether can extract stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and compounds with immunomodulatory activity from Anacyclus pyrethrum. It is also used as a detergent, a fuel, insecticide, in paints and varnishes, and in photography.
- References Anjoo Kamboj, Ajay Kumar Saluja (2011) Isolation of Stigmasterol and beta sitosterol from petroleum ether extract of Aerial parts of Ageratum Conyzoides (Asteracea), Inter. J. Pharma. Pharma. Sci. 3, 94-¬96.
 Ashton Acton (2011) Advances in Immune System Research and Applications
- Chemical PropertiesPetroleum ether is a flammable liquid used as a universal solvent and extractant during the processing of different chemicals, like fats, waxes, paints, varnishes, furniture polish thinning, as detergent, and as fuel. The major components include paraffi ns, olefi ns, naphthenes, aromatics, and about 10%–40% ethyl alcohol.
- Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid with hydrocarbon odour
- UsesThinners in paints and varnish.
- DefinitionAny of a number of narrowboiling-range fractions of petroleum with bp of approximately 93–204C, according to the specific use.
- DefinitionA flammable mixture of hydrocarbons, mainly pentane and hexane, used as a solvent. Note that it is not an ether.
- DefinitionA colourlessvolatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons(not an ether), mainly pentaneand hexane. It boils in the range30–70°C and is used as a solvent.
- General DescriptionColorless liquid with the odor of gasoline. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Also refered to as Varnish Makers & Painters Naphtha. This petroleum fraction is similar to Petroleum Ether (CAS 8030-30-6) but V.M. & P. is a heavier distillate. Flash point ranges from 20° F to 100° F.
- Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Insoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfilePETROLEUM NAPHTHA, [FLAMMABLE LIQUID LABEL] may be incompatible with strong oxidizing agents like nitric acid. Charring may occur followed by ignition of unreacted material and other nearby combustibles. In other settings, mostly unreactive. Not affected by aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, most oxidizing agents, and most reducing agents. When heated sufficiently or when ignited in the presence of air, oxygen or strong oxidizing agents, burns exothermically to produce mostly carbon dioxide and water.
- HazardFlammable, dangerous fire risk.
- Health HazardInhalation of concentrated vapor may cause intoxication. Liquid is not very irritating to skin or eyes but may get into lungs by aspiration.
- Health HazardThe vapors of VM&P solvent are irritant tothe eyes and upper respiratory tract. Suchirritant action in humans may be manifested at an exposure level of 1000 ppm for15 minutes. It is narcotic at high concentrations. The symptoms noted in rats of acuteexposure were loss of coordination as wellas convulsions. The inhalation LC50 value for4-hour exposure in rats is 3400 ppm (NIOSH1986)..
- Health HazardAfter acute and prolonged exposures to petroleum ether in work places, occupational workers suffer and demonstrate a variety of health disorder. The symptoms of toxicity include, but are not limited to, erythema, edema, skin peeling, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, paresthesia, CNS depression, peripheral nerve disorders, skin and respiratory irritation, and chemical pneumonia in children. Occupational workers exposed to rubber solvent, varnish, thinner, and petroleum spirits develop skin irritation, respiratory problems, and hematologic effects.
- Fire HazardFlammable liquid; flash point (closed cup) 14°C (57°F); vapors form explosive mixtures with air within the range 1.2–6.0% by volume in air.
- Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen. A poison by intravenous route. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Ingestion can cause a burning sensation, vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, and, in severe cases, pulmonary edema. Inhalation of concentrated vapors can cause intoxication resembling that from alcohol, headache, nausea, coma, and hemorrhage to various vital organs. An eye irritant. A flammable liquid and highly dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flame, sparks, or oxidizing materials. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. Highly dangerous; keep away from heat or flame. To fight fire, use foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes
- Purification MethodsShake it several times with conc H2SO4, then 10% H2SO4 and concentrated KMnO4 (to remove unsaturated, including aromatic, hydrocarbons) until the permanganate colour persists. Wash it with water, aqueous Na2CO3 and again with water. Dry it with CaCl2 or Na2SO4, and distil it. It can be dried further using CaH2 or sodium wire. Passage through a column of activated alumina, or treatment with CaH2 or sodium, removes peroxides. For the elimination of carbonyl-containing impurities without using permanganate, see n-heptane. These procedures could be used for all fractions of pet ethers. See skellysolve below, p. 178. Rapid purification: Pass it through an alumina column and fractionally distilling, collecting the desired boiling fraction.
PETROLEUM ETHER Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsCyclobutanecarbonyl chloride2,6-Dibromopyridin-3-amine2-CHLORO-PYRIMIDINE-5-SULFONYL CHLORIDENORDALBERGIN2,4-DICHLORO-3,5-DINITROBENZOIC ACID(5-BROMO-PYRIMIDIN-2-YL)-DIETHYL-AMINE2-AMINO-5-CHLORO-3-PICOLINE2-AMINO-3,5-DICHLORO-6-METHYLPYRIDINEOrmeloxifene4-BROMO-7-CHLOROQUINOLINE6-METHOXYCOUMARIN2,6-Pyridinedicarboxaldehyde1-(5-NITRO-2-FURYL)ETHANONE4-PROPYL-PYRIDIN-2-YLAMINE5-ACETYL-2,3-DIHYDROBENZO(B)FURAN4-MALEIMIDOBUTYRIC ACIDETHYL 2-METHYLTHIAZOLE-4-CARBOXYLATE2,4-Diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine1-(CYCLOHEXYLCARBONYL)PIPERAZINE 978-METHOXYCOUMARIN2-AMINO-3,5-DICHLORO-4-METHYLPYRIDINE2-(BUTYLAMINO)ETHANOLN-METHOXYCARBONYLMALEIMIDE4-Azabenzimidazole2-Amino-6-bromopyridine3-CARBETHOXYUMBELIFERONE2,4-Dichloro-3-nitropyridineTRIS(PENTAFLUOROPHENYL)BORANE4-HYDROXY-8-METHOXY-QUINOLINE-3-CARBOXYLIC ACID ETHYL ESTERETHYL (3-HYDROXYPHENYL)CARBAMATETriisopropyl phosphite2,4-Dichlorobenzenesulfonyl chloride2-Chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine2'-chlrophenyl-diphenyl-chlromethaneETHYL 1,3-BENZOTHIAZOLE-2-CARBOXYLATE2,4,6-TRIBROMOPYRIMIDINETriphenylsilanolAntioxidant ZM-405ZeinAsiaticoside
- Raw materialsPETROLEUM ETHER
- PETROLEUM ETHER,PETROLEUM OIL,PETROLEUM ETHER 30-60,PETROLEUM ETHER 60-80,PETROLEUM ETHER 40-60,PETROLEUM ETHER 35/60,PETROLEUM ETHER 30-40,PETROLEUM ETHER 300,PETROLEUM ETHER 100-140,PETROLEUM ETHER 100-120,SOLVENT NAPHTHA Cyclohexane PETROLEUM ETHER,PETROLEUM OIL,PETROLEUM ETHER 60-80,PETROLEUM ETHER 100-120,PETROLEUM ETHER 300,PETROLEUM ETHER 100-140,PETROLEUM ETHER 30-40,PETROLEUM ETHER 30-60,PETROLEUM ETHER 35/60,PETROLEUM ETHER 40-60,SOLVENT NAPHTHA Solvent naphtha (petroleum), hydrodesulfurized medium ,Solvent naphtha (petroleum), hydrodesulfurized medium Kerosine - unspecified Lithium isopropoxide, 1m solution in hexanes HEXANES,REAGENT,ACS(BULK Lithium tributylmagnesate in hexanes/ether n-Butyllithium, 2.5M solution in hexanes,n-Butyllithium, 1.6M solution in hexanes,n-butyllithium, 10.0m in hexanes,Hexanes, Reagent,BUTYLLITHIUM, 10.0M SOLUTION IN HEXANES SOLVENT NAPHTHA gases, petroleum, oil refinery distillation off-gas,Gases (petroleum), oil refinery gas distn. off Solvent naphtha (petroleum), heavy arom. Kerosine - unspecified,Solvent naphtha (petroleum), heavy arom. Solvent naphtha (petroleum), heavy Solvent naphtha (coal tar), high-temp. TOLUENE, XYLENE, SOLVENT NAPHTHA HEXANES,PRACTICAL Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light aliph., oxidized Petroleum ether, boiling range 40 - 60 °C, Multisolvent HPLC grade ACS ISO UV-VIS Petroleum oil+Omethoate,E.C.(28%)
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