ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Inorganic chemistry > Inorganic salts > Manganese oxides and peroxides > Manganese dioxide
Basic information Description Chemical Properties Uses Toxicity evaluation Resources Safety Related Supplier
Manganese dioxide Chemical Properties
- Melting point:535 °C (dec.) (lit.)
- Density 5.02
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- solubility <0.001g/l insoluble
- form powder
- color gray
- Specific Gravity5.026
- Water Solubility insoluble
- Merck 14,5730
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong reducing agents, organic materials.
- CAS DataBase Reference1313-13-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Referencemanganese(IV) dioxide(1313-13-9)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemManganese dioxide (1313-13-9)
Manganese dioxide Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionManganese dioxide, mainly used as a depolarizer in dry cell batteries, is the most important non-metallic form of manganese. In either traditional alkaline and rechargeable battery cells, Manganese dioxide takes in electrons through a redox reaction, becoming Manganese III oxide. It also has applications in lithium-ion technologies.
It is also the primary precursor to ferromanganese, an alloy of iron used for its lower melting point and low cost.
It is black in appearance and used to color glass and ceramics, as well as for cave art and possibly body paint in prehistorical eras. Further uses include the purification of drinking water, and production of pure oxygen and chlorine.
- Chemical PropertiesManganese dioxide ( MnO2 ) , known as pyrolusite when found in nature , is the most plentiful of all the manganese compounds. MnO2 is Iron-black to dark steel-gray or bluish mineral; black or bluish-black streak; metallic or dull luster. Soluble in hydrochloric acid.
Manganese dioxide is an important component in batteries. It is also used in glassmaking to remove the green fint caused by iron impurities.
- UsesThe chemistry of manganese(III) is not extensive, and in the higher oxidation states manganese dioxide and potassium permanganate are the most important compounds.
Manganese dioxide is also used in the manufacture of glass to bleach the colour of any iron present. If excess manganese dioxide is added, a pink coloration can be produced in the glass and if a large excess is present it will appear black.
Other uses of manganese dioxide include its use as an oxidizing agent in organic chemistry and as an oxidizing agent in safety matches, fireworks and flares. It is also an effective adsorbent for hydrogen sulphide and is also used to colour ceramics.
- Toxicity evaluationInhalation exposure to high concentrations of manganese dusts (specifically manganese dioxide [MnO2] and manganese tetroxide [Mn3O4]) can cause an inflammatory response in the lung, which, over time, can result in impaired lung function. Lung toxicity is manifested as an increased susceptibility to infections such as bronchitis and can result in manganic pneumonia. Pneumonia has also been observed following acute inhalation exposures to particulates containing other metals. Thus, this effect might be characteristic of inhalable particulate matter and might not depend solely on the manganese content of the particle.
- Chemical PropertiesManganese dioxide is a black crystalline solid or powder.
- Physical propertiesBlack tetragonal crystals; density 5.08 g/cm3; Moh’s hardness 6.3; decomposes at 535°C; insoluble in water.
- UsesManganese(IV) oxide is the most important ore of manganese from which the metal is mostly manufactured. The oxide occurs in nature as the mineral pyrolusite as heavy gray lumps, or black when powdered.
The mineral is used to produce manganese metal, most manganese salts, and also manganese steel and other alloys. The metallurgical applications of manganese(IV) oxide mainly involve making ferromanganese and special manganese alloys. Another important application of manganese(IV) oxide is in manufacturing dry-cell batteries and alkaline cells. The oxide also is a colorant in brick, tile, porcelain and glass; a drier for paints and varnishes; a 552 MANGANESE(IV) OXIDEpreparation for printing and dyeing textiles; a curing agent for polysulfide rubbers; an adsorbent for hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide; an oxidizing agent in many organic syntheses such as quinone and hydroquinone; and a catalyst in laboratory preparation of oxygen from potassium chlorate. Manganese(IV) oxide also is used to make welding rods and fluxes, and ceramic magnets (ferrites); and is an additive to fertilizers.
- UsesThe mineral is the source of manganese and all its Compounds; largely used in manufacture of manganese steel; oxidizer; in alkaline batteries (dry cells); for making amethyst glass, decolorizing glass; painting on porcelain, faience and majolica. The ppt is used in electrotechnics, pigments, browning gun barrels, drier for paints and varnishes, printing and dyeing textiles.
- PreparationPure manganese(IV) oxide (precipitate form) may be prepared by reducing permanganate ion with a manganous salt:
2KMnO4 + 3MnSO4 + 2H2O → 5MnO2 + K2SO4 + 2H2SO4
Manganese(IV) oxide can also be precipitated by oxidation of a manganese(II) salt using an oxidizing agent such as hypochlorite or peroxydisulphate:
Mn2+ + S2O82– + 2H2O → MnO2 + 2SO42– + 4H+
Manganese(IV) oxide may also be made by thermal decomposition of manganese(II) nitrate; or from roasting manganese(II) carbonate in air: Mn(NO3)2 → MnO2 + 2NO2
MnCO3 + ½ O2 → MnO2 + CO2
A highly active gamma-MnO2 can be produced by treating manganese(III) oxide with hot sulfuric acid:
Mn2O3 + H2SO4 → MnO2 + MnSO4 + H2O
Mn2O3 is derived from pyrolusite by heating the mineral at 600–800°C or reducing with powdered coal at 300°C.
- Reactivity ProfileThe stability of manganese dioxide is due primarily to its insolubility. It is, however, readily attacked by reducing agents in acid solution, for example oxidizing concentrated hydrochloric acid to chlorine. In hot concentrated alkali it dissolves to give a purple solution which contains an equimolar mixture of trivalent manganese, probably as (Mn(OH)6)3- and manganate(V), (MnO4)3-. Manganese dioxide is also one of the most active catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide near room temperature.
- HazardOxidizing agent, may ignite organic materials.
- Industrial usesManganese dioxide (MnO2) is soluble in water and HNO3 and soluble in HCl. It occurs in nature as the blue-black mineral pyrolusite. In glass, manganese dioxide is used as a colorant and decolorizer.
The major use of manganese oxides is an ore of manganese for the manufacturing of steel; manganese serves to increase the hardness and decrease the brittleness of steel. Another important use of manganese oxides is as the cathode material of common zinc/carbon and alkaline batteries (such as flashlight batteries).
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous and intratracheal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. Experimental reproductive effects. A powerful oxidizer. Flammable by chemical reaction. It must not be heated or rubbed in contact with easily oxilzable matter. Violent thermite reaction when heated with aluminum. Potentially explosive reaction with hydrogen peroxide, peroxomonosulfuric acid, chlorates + heat, anilinium perchlorate. Ignition on contact with hydrogen sulfide. Violent reaction with oxidizers, potassium azide (when warmed), diboron tetrafluoride, Incandescent reaction with calcium hydride, chlorine trifluoride, rubidium acetylide (at 350℃). Vigorous reaction with hydroxylaminium chloride. Incompatible with H202, H2SO j, Naz02. Keep away from heat and flammable materials. See also MANGANESE COMPOUNDS.
- Potential ExposureManganese dioxide is used as depolarizer for dry cell batteries, for production of manganese metal; as an oxidizing agent; laboratory reagent; and in making pyrotechnics and matches; in dry cell batteries.
- ShippingUN1479 Oxidizing solid, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer, Technical Name Required. UN3137 (powder) Oxidizing solid, flammable, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer, 4.1 Flammable solid, Technical Name Required.
- IncompatibilitiesA powerful oxidizer. Incompatible with strong acids; reducing agents; combustible materials (such as fuel and clothing; organic materials. Mixtures with calcium hydride is a heat- and friction-sensitive explosive. Vigorous reaction with hydrogen sulfide, diboron tetrafluoride; calcium hydride; chlorine trifluoride; hydrogen peroxide; hydroxyaluminum chloride; anilinium perchlorate. Decomposes when heated above 553C producing manganese(III)oxide and oxygen, which increases fire hazard. Reacts violently with aluminum (thermite reaction), potassium azide; rubidium acetylide; in the presence of hea
- Waste DisposalGenerators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number N450, must conform to USEPA regulations for storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of waste. Dispose of waste material as hazardous waste using a licensed disposal contractor to an approved landfill. Dispose of contents and container to an approved waste disposal plant. Containers must be disposed of properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Do not discharge into drains or sewers
Manganese dioxide Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsMordant Black 13Pyridoxal hydrochloride1-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-4-piperidinecarboxaldehyde5-METHOXY-1H-PYRROLO[2,3-C]PYRIDINE-2-CARBALDEHYDE3-CHLORO-4-((CYCLOPROPYLAMINO)METHYL)BENZALDEHYDEMANGANESE (II) OXIDE2-Chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid5-BROMO-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBALDEHYDE5-CHLORO-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBALDEHYDEVat Green 1LITHIUM MANGANESE OXIDE3-(CHLOROMETHYL)-N,N-DIMETHYLBENZENESULFONAMIDECIS-2-AMINOCYCLOHEXANOL HYDROCHLORIDE3-AMINO-4-PYRIDINECARBOXYALDEHYDE HYDROCHLORIDEIndole-7-carboxaldehydeMANGANESE(II) NITRATE TETRAHYDRATEPyridoxal phosphateIndole-6-carboxaldehyde4-CHLORO-3-((CYCLOPROPYLAMINO)METHYL)BENZALDEHYDEButyl butyrate4,6-DIMETHOXYPYRIMIDINE-2-CARBALDEHYDELITHIUM MANGANITEManganese chlorideCeramic pigmentpasted Zn/MnO2 batteryManganese chloride tetrahydratelithium manganese dioxide batteryround type alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide batteryflat type zinc-manganese dioxide battery2,4-PentadienalPyridoxamine dihydrochloriderenewable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide batteryVat Blue 6Vat Blue BCbutton type alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide batterytrans,trans-2,4-NonadienalTestosteroneRum EtherVat Blue 14SODIUM PERMANGANATE
- Raw materialsSulfuric acid Nitric acidPotassium permanganateAmmonium bicarbonateSodium chlorateManganese carbonateManganeseBARIUM SULFIDEMANGANESE (II) OXIDEManganese nitrateElectrolytic manganese bioxideMANGANESE (III) OXIDEMagnesia ore
- POTASSIUM MANGANATE Potassium chlorate ZINC PERMANGANATE Electronic Manganese Dioxide Slimes and Sludges, zinc calcium leach soln., peroxidized, manganese dioxide-contg. button type alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide battery renewable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide battery Lithium manganese (IV) oxide ELECTROLYTIC MANGANESE DIOXIDE sulfur dioxide Silicon Manganese (Diethoxymethyl)diphenylphosphine oxide Iron oxide Electrolytic manganese bioxide MANGANESE STEARATE CALCIUM PERMANGANATE SILVER PERMANGANATE RUBIDIUM PERMANGANATE
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