ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Food Additives > Nutrition supplements > Amino acids and nitrogen-containing compounds > Taurine
Basic information Description History Medicinal effect Preparation References Safety Related Supplier
Taurine Chemical Properties
- Melting point:>300 °C (lit.)
- Density 1.00 g/mL at 20 °C
- refractive index 1.5130 (estimate)
- FEMA 3813 | TAURINE
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility H2O: 0.5 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- pka1.5(at 25℃)
- form Crystals or Crystalline Powder
- color White
- PH4.5-6.0 (25℃, 0.5M in H2O)
- Water Solubility 5-10 g/100 mL at 23.5 ºC
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.006
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.005
- JECFA Number1435
- Merck 14,9074
- BRN 1751215
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
- CAS DataBase Reference107-35-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry Reference2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid(107-35-7)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemTaurine (107-35-7)
Taurine Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionTaruine is an organic compounds that widely existing in animal tissues. It is a sulfur amino acid, but not being used for protein synthesis. It is rich in the brain, breasts, gallbladder and kidney. It is an essential amino acid in the pre-term and newborn infants of human. It has various kinds of physiological functions including being as a neurotransmitter in the brain, conjugation of bile acids, anti-oxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, modulation of calcium signaling, regulating the cardiovascular function as well as the development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system. It can be manufactured through the ammonolysis of isethionic acid or the reaction of aziridine with sulfurous acid. Because of its highly important physiological role, it can be supplied to energy drinks. It can also be used in cosmetics to maintain skin hydration, and used in some contact lens solution.
- HistoryAs the conditionally essential amino acid of the human body, it is a kind of β- sulphamic acid. In mammalian tissues, it is a metabolite of methionine and cystine. It was first isolated from ox bile in 1827, hence the name taurine. It commonly exists in the form of free amino acids in various tissues of animals, but not goes into proteins without combination. Taurine is rarely found in plants. Early on, people had considered it a bile acid binding agent of taurocholic combined with cholic acid. However, recent studies have shown that taurine has many important biological functions apart from the above mentioned forming taurocholic acid and participating in the digestion and absorption of lipids.It is important nutrients for normal development and function of cranial nerve to play the role in adjusting a variety of nerve cells of the central nervous system; taurine in retina accounts for 40% to 50% of total free amino acid, which is necessary for maintaining the structure and function of photoreceptor cells; affecting the myocardial contracts dint, regulating calcium metabolism, controlling arrhythmia, lowering blood pressure, etc; maintaining cellular antioxidant activity to protect the tissues from damaging free radicals; decreasing platelet aggregation and so on. As the metabolites containing sulphur amino acids, mammals have different abilities to synthesize taurine: The synthetic ability of rats and dogs is stronger, the synthetic ability of human and primate is lower, while that of kits and human infants is very low. Taurine in the infant mainly comes from the diet, so it is recommended to supplement the taurine in the baby's diet. Foods with a higher content of taurine include conch, clam, mussel, oyster, squid and other shellfish food, which chould be up to 500 ~ 900mg/100g in the table part; the content in fish is comparably different; the content in poultry and offal is also rich; the content in human milk is higher than cow milk; taurine is not found in eggs and vegetable food.
- Medicinal effect
- Liver-strengthening cholagogue function: The combination of taurine and cholic acid can increase biliary permeability and is related to bile backflow; this product can also reduce cholesterol levels in the liver and reduce the formation of cholesterol calculus.
- Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects: It can lower the body temperature by effects on the central 5-HT system or catecholamine system.
- Hypotensive effect: After injecting this product, it shows the effects including reducing blood pressure, slowing down heart rate, regulating vascular tension and so on.
- Cardiac and anti-arrhythmia action: This product can regulate the combination of Ca++ in cardiac myocytes and can reverse the adverse effects of Ca++ on the myocardium.
- Hypoglycemic effect: This product directly affects the insulin receptor of the liver and muscle cell membrane and has the effect of insulin-like hypoglycemic action.
- Other effects: loosening up skeletal muscle, reversing myotonia and fighting fatigue after exercise. Local application of this product can reduce the increased pressure in the eyeball caused by prostaglandin; there are still nutritional effects. Clinical use at acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, fatty liver, cholecystitis, etc.,as well as use in bronchitis, tonsillitis, ophthalmia and other infectious diseases. This product can be tried for cold, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, arthritis, myotonia, etc.
- Extract from the mollusk such as fish, shellfish and so on.
- After reacting to form sodium 2-hydroxyethanesulfonate at 70℃with ethylene oxide and sodium hydrogen sulfite as raw materials, this product can be obtained by further aminolysis and desalination .
- It can be obtained by reaction between ethylene imine and sulfurous acid .
- It can be obtained with nitroethylene and sodium bisulfite as raw materials. CH2＝CHNO2+NaHSO3→
- It can be obtained preparing by sulfonation of sodium sulfite and aminolysis in liquid ammonia with sodium sulfite as the raw material .
- Ethanolamine is used as the raw material to react with hydrochloric acid to form chloroethylamine hydrochloride, which is reacted with sodium sulfite to produce sodium ethylamine sulfonate. This product can be obtained by desalination with dilute sulphuric acid .
- Use aziridine as the raw material and react with sulfur dioxide and water to obtain this product .
- Like 6, it can be obtained by using bromoethylamine hydrobromide as the raw material and reacting with sodium sulfite .
- Use 1, 2-dichloroethane as the raw material and react with sodium sulfite to produce chloroethanesulfonic acid sodium salt. React with ammonia under heating with pressure to form sodium amino ethyl sulfonate. Then it can be prepared by hydrochloric acid-acidification desalination .
- Like 9, we use hydroxyethanesulphonic acid as the raw material and react with ammonia under heating with pressure to obtain this product .
- We use 2,2-dimethyl thiazoles as the raw material, hydrogen peroxide or manganese dioxide as the oxidizing agent. This product can be obtained by oxidation under pressure , with acetone as by-product at the same time.
- It can be obtained by using 2-amino alcohol monoester as the raw material and reacting with sodium sulfite . (H2NCH2CH2O)HSO3+Na2SO3→ +Na2SO4
- N- vinyl propanamide is used as the raw material to react with sodium bisulfite to produce sodium 2- propane amino ethyl sulfonate. Then this product can be obtained by acidification desalination and hydrolysis.
- Chemical PropertiesTaurine is a naturally occurring amino acid with a bitter taste and sharp flavor. It is a nonessential amino acid by definition because the body can synthesize it from methionine and cysteine.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite crystalline powder
- OccurrenceReported found in beef, black beans, chicken, chick peas, clams, cod, fish, lamb, milk, octopus, oysters, pistachios, pork, scallops, shrimp and other natural sources.
- Usesvitamin B1, enzyme cofactor
- UsesTaurine is an organic acid found in animal tissues and is a major constituent of bile. Taurine has many biological roles such as conjugation of bile acids, antioxidation, osmoregulation, membrane stab ilization and modulation of calcium signaling.
- DefinitionChEBI: An amino sulfonic acid that is the 2-amino derivative of ethanesulfonic acid. It is a naturally occurring amino acid derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism. An abundant component of fish- and meat-based foods, it has been used as an oral suppleme t in the treatment of disorders such as cystic fibrosis and hypertension.
- General DescriptionLarge white crystals or white powder.
- Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
- Reactivity ProfileTaurine is an amino acid found in combination with bile acids [Hawley].
- HazardToxic by ingestion.
- Health HazardACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS: Taurine evolves highly toxic fumes when heated to decomposition, and may cause irritation on contact.
- Fire HazardFlash point data are not available for Taurine, but Taurine is probably combustible.
- Biological ActivityOne of the most abundant free amino acids in the brain. A partial agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor.
- Safety ProfileExperimental reproductive effects. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of SOx and NOx.
- Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsTaurine has proven beneficial in preventing retinal degeneration and the prevention and treatment of taurine-deficiency dilated cardiomyopathy in cats. Although modern commercial feline diets have added taurine, some cats still develop taurine-deficiency associated dilated cardiomyopathy. It may also be of benefit in taurine (±carnitine) deficient cardiomyopathy in American Cocker Spaniels and certain other breeds such as, Golden Retrievers, Labrador Retrievers, Newfoundlands, Dalmations, Portuguese Water Dogs, and English Bulldogs. Preliminary studies have shown evidence that it may be useful as adjunctive treatment for cardiac disease in animals even if taurine deficiency is not present. Because of its low toxicity, some have suggested it be tried for a multitude of conditions in humans and animals; unfortunately, little scientific evidence exists for these uses.
Taurine Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsEtanolSulfuric acid Sodium sulfateSodium sulfiteSodium bisulfiteSodium hypochloriteEthanolamineAcrylamideSULFATE STANDARDSULFUROUS ACIDPropionamideCHLOROPICRIN & ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE2-AMINOETHYL HYDROGEN SULFATE2-Chloroethylamine hydrochlorideSodium 2-bromoethanesulphonateEthylsulphuric acid
- Preparation Products3-AminobenzylmethylamineCholic acid
- N-METHYLTAURINE HYPOTAURINE acetyltaurine 2-AMINOETHANE-13C2-SULFONIC ACID [1,2-3H]TAURINE N-(2-Heptadecenoyl)taurine sodium salt N-(2-Decenoyl)taurine sodium salt N-Cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid 2-Acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid taumustine Piperazine-N,N'-bis-(2-ethanesulphonic acid) dipotassium salt SODIUM TAUROGLYCOCHOLATE L-CYSTEIC ACID MONOHYDRATE 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)piperazine-1-ethanesulfonic acid hemisodium salt Taurodeoxycholic acid sodium salt 2-Aminotoluene-5-sulfonic acid Aniline-2-sulfonic acid Ethyl 2-(Chlorosulfonyl)acetate
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