SULFATE STANDARD Chemical Properties
SULFATE STANDARD Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionThe sulfate anion (SO42−) is the stable, oxidized form of sulfur. Sulfate minerals are widely distributed in nature, and most sulfate compounds are readily soluble in water. All sulfate salts are very soluble except for calcium and silver sulfates, which are moderately soluble, and barium, mercury, lead, and strontium sulfates, which are insoluble.
It is estimated that about one-half of the river sulfate load arises from mineral weathering and volcanism, and the other half from biochemical and anthropogenic sources. Industrial discharges are another significant source of sulfates. Mine and tailings drainage, smelter emissions, agricultural runoff from fertilized lands, pulp and paper mills, textile mills, tanneries, sulfuric acid production, and metalworking industries are all sources of sulfate-polluted water. Aluminum sulfate (alum) is used as a sedimentation agent for treating drinking water. Copper sulfate is used for controlling algae in raw and public water supplies.
- DefinitionChEBI: A sulfur oxoanion obtained by deprotonation of both OH groups of sulfuric acid.
- Health HazardThe sulfate anion is generally considered nontoxic to animal, aquatic, and plant life. It is an important source of sulfur, an essential nutrient for plants and animals. Sulfates are used as additives in the food industry, and the average daily intake of sulfate from drinking water, air, and food is approximately 500 mg. As examples, some measured sulfate concentrations in beverages are 100–500 mg/L in drinking water, 500 mg/L in coconut milk, 260 mg/L in beer (bitter), 250 mg/L in tomato juice, and 300 mg/L in red wine (FNB 2004). Available data suggest that people acclimate rapidly to the presence of sulfates in their drinking water.
No upper limit likely to cause detrimental human health effects has been determined for sulfate in drinking water. However, concentrations of 500–750 mg/L may cause a temporary mild laxative effect, although doses of several thousand milligrams per liter generally do not cause any long-term ill effects. Because of the laxative effects resulting from ingestion of drinking water containing high sulfate levels, the EPA recommends that health authorities be notified of sources of drinking water that contain sulfate concentrations in excess of 500 mg/L.
The presence of sulfate can adversely affect the taste of drinking water, imparting a bitter taste. The lowest taste threshold concentration for sulfate is approximately 250 mg/L as sodium salt, but higher as calcium or magnesium salts (up to 1000 mg/L).
- Environmental FateNearly all natural surface waters and shallow groundwaters contain sulfate anions. Sulfate is commonly found as a prominent component of unpolluted waters and is included among the six major surface and shallow groundwater ions (Na+ , Ca+ , Mg+Cl− , (HCO3)2− , and (SO4)2−), second to bicarbonate as the most abundant anion in most freshwaters. Sulfur is an essential plant and animal nutrient, and sulfate is the most common inorganic form of sulfur in aerobic environments. Sulfate water concentrations that are too low have a detrimental effect on both land and aquatic plant growth.
Sulfate is redox sensitive and is bacterially reduced to sulfide ion under anaerobic conditions. Sulfide may be released to the atmosphere as H2S gas or precipitated as insoluble metal sulfides. Oxidation of sulfides returns sulfur to the sulfate form.
Sulfates may be leached from most sedimentary rocks, including shales, with the most appreciable contributions from such sulfate deposits as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4 ). The oxidation of sulfur-bearing organic materials can con- tribute sulfates to waters.
SULFATE STANDARD Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsSilk softener L3,7-Dimethyl-7-hydroxyoctanalribonucleic acid for injectionReactive Red Brown K-B3rReactive Blue 104REACTIVE BLUE 19Reactive Blue BRFmonoethanolamine dodecyl sulfatesec-alkyl sodium sulfateREACTIVE VIOLET 5LanoconazoleReactive Blue 222Reactive Dark Blue M-2geReactive Golden Yellow KM-Gtrisodium [5-acetamido-4-hydroxy-3-[[2-hydroxy-5-[[2-(sulphooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2,7-disulphonato(5-)]cuprate(3-) Reactive Light Yellow M-5GREACTIVE BLACK 5Reactive Turquoise Blue Kn-GReactive Yeiiow M-3REReactive Yellow 176Reactive Red ME-2GSilk softenerReactive Brilliant Yellow M-7Gfinishing agent for mylon industrial silkReactive Black 31Reactive Blue 231Reactive Red M-3BEReactive Brilliant Blue M-BR[2-[[4-[(2-cyano-4-nitrophenyl)azo]phenyl]ethylamino]ethyl]trimethylammonium methyl sulphateReactive Disperse Scarlet GReactive Red 180C.I.Reactive Red 112-[(4-amino-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-3-sulfo-1-anthracenyl) amino]-4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]sulfonyl]-Benzoic acidfrothing agent K14REACTIVE RED 194REACTIVE RED 198Reactive Red 240Reactive Black M-2Rdisodium 6-acetamido-4-hydroxy-3-[[4-[[2-(sulphonatooxy)ethyl]sulphonyl]phenyl]azo]naphthalene-2-sulphonate Reactive Disperse Orange R
- Cesium sulfate GADOLINIUM(III) SULFATE CERIUM(III) SULFATE OCTAHYDRATE Ferrous sulfate monohydrate GALLIUM SULFATE Silver sulfate ERBIUM SULFATE Ferric sulfate Aluminum sulfate ALUMINUM POTASSIUM SULFATE BERYLLIUM SULFATE Cadmium sulfate Sodium octyl sulfate Barite Manganese sulfate EUROPIUM SULFATE DYSPROSIUM(III) SULFATE OCTAHYDRATE CALCIUM SULFATE
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- Company Name:Chengdu HuaXia Chemical Reagent Co. Ltd
- Tel:13458535857 400-1166-196
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- Company Name:BOC Sciences