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Thiamine chloride Chemical Properties
- Hazardous Substances Data59-43-8(Hazardous Substances Data)
- Language:EnglishProvider:Thiamine chloride
Thiamine chloride Usage And Synthesis
- OriginatorThiamine chloride,Sopharma
- Manufacturing Process2 Methods of preparation of thiamine:
1. 3-Ethoxypropionitrile reacted with diethoxymethoxy-ethane and 3-ethoxy- 2-methoxymethylenpropionitrile was obtained.
Then to the 3-ethoxy-2-methoxymethylenpropionitrile acetamidine was added and reaction mixture was stirred to give 4-amino-5-ethoxy-methyl-2- methylpyrimidine.
The 4-amino-5-ethoxy-methyl-2-methylpyrimidine was treated by hydrobromic acid to afford 4-amino-5-bromomethyl-2-methylpyrimidine hydrobromide.
The 4-amino-5-bromomethyl-2-methylpyrimidine hydrobromide reacted with 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole in the presence of hydrobromic acid and as the result thiaminbromide was produced. For changing of the thiaminbromide to the thiamincloride the thiaminbromide was treated by AgCl.
2. To diethoxymethoxy-ethane malononitrile was added and ethoxymethylenmalononitrile was obtained. The ethoxymethylen-malononitrile reacted with acetamidine as a result 4-amino-5-cyano-2-methylpyrimidine was produced, which was reduced by H2/Raney-Ni to 4-amino-5-aminomethyl-2- methylpyrimidine.
To the 4-amino-5-aminomethyl-2-methylpyrimidine 1-acetoxy-3-chloropentan- 4-one was added in the presence CS2 and NH3, and reaction mixture was stirred, then to this mixture hydrochloric acid was added and thiamin (base) was obtained.
To thiamin (base) H2O2 and hydrocloricum acid are added, in the result reaction the thiamine chloride was obtained.
- Therapeutic FunctionEnzyme cofactor vitamin, Antineuritic
- General DescriptionThiamine, the preferred name for vitamin B1, holds a prominent place in the history of vitamin discovery because beriberi, the disease resulting from insufficient thiamine intake, was one of the earliest recognized deficiency diseases.
- Biological ActivitySome earlier designations for this substance included aneurin, antineuritic factor, antiberiberi factor, and oryzamin. Thiamine is metabolically active as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP).
TPP functions as a coenzyme which participates in decarboxylation of α-keto acids. Dehydrogenation and decarboxylation must precede the formation of “active acetate” in the initial reaction of the TCA cycle (citric acid cycle):图
This reaction is a good example of the interrelationship of vitamin B coenzymes. Four vitamin coenzymes are necessary for this one reaction: (1) thiamine (in TPP) for decarboxylation; (2) nicotinic acid in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD); (3) riboflavin in flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD); and (4) pantothenic acid in coenzyme A (CoA) for activation of the acetate fragment.
- Clinical UseThiamine chloride, as the base or as the hydrochloride salt, is indicatedin the treatment or prophylaxis of known or suspected thiaminedeficiencies. Severe thiamine deficiency is calledberiberi, which is very rare in developed countries. The mostlikely cause of thiamine deficiency in the United States is theresult of chronic alcoholism, which leads to multiple vitamindeficiencies as a result of poor dietary intake. The major organsaffected are the nervous system (dry beriberi), whichmanifests as neurological damage, the cardiovascular system(wet beriberi), which manifests as heart failure and edema, andthe gastrointestinal tract. Thiamine administration reverses thegastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms;however, if the deficiency has been severe or of prolonged duration, the neurological damage may be permanent.
- Safety ProfilePoison by subcutaneous and intravenous routes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of NOx, SOx, and Cl-.
Thiamine chloride Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Vitamin D2 Pyridoxine hydrochloride Vitamin A Riboflavin 5'-Monophosphate Sodium Salt Sodium chloride Benfotiamine Menadione Folic acid Ammonium chloride Thiophanate-methyl 5-Chloro-2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone with 2-methyl-3(2H)-isothiazolone Methylparaben Thiamine hydrochloride Vitamin D3 3-Diethylaminophenol Vitamin B12 DL-α-Tocopherol MULTIVITAMIN
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