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Thiamine hydrochloride

Basic information Description References Safety Related Supplier
Thiamine hydrochloride Basic information
Thiamine hydrochloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:250 °C (dec.)(lit.)
  • Density 1.3766 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index 1.6000 (estimate)
  • Flash point:9°C
  • storage temp. room temp
  • solubility H2O: 0.1 g/mL at 20 °C, clear, colorless
  • form Crystalline Powder
  • pkapKa 4.8 (Uncertain);9.0 (Uncertain)
  • color White to almost white
  • PH2.7-3.3
  • Water Solubility 1 g/mL
  • Sensitive Light Sensitive & Hygroscopic
  • Merck 14,9295
  • JECFA Number1030
  • BRN 3851771
  • Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong reducing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference67-03-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemThiamine hydrochloride (67-03-8)
Safety Information
Thiamine hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionThiamine Hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of thiamine (vitamin B1), a vitamin essential for aerobic metabolism, cell growth, transmission of nerve impulses and acetylcholine synthesis. Vitamin B1 helps prevent various health problems including heart damage.
    Thiamine hydrochloride is used to prevent and treat thiamine deficiency states, which may occur as a result of inadequate nutrition or intestinal malabsorption. It is also used for the treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, beriberi and thiamine deficiency related to chronic alcoholism. Thiamine hydrochloride is used as a food additive to add brothy/meaty flavor to gravies or soups. It is used also as a food supplement and flavoring ingredient with a bitter taste.
  • References[1]
    [2] Shmuel Yannai (2012) Dictionary of Food Compounds with CD-ROM, Second Edition
  • DescriptionIn 1912, Cashmir Funk isolated thiamine from rice husks and coined the term ‘vitamine’ because it was required for life (‘vita’) and because thiamine contained nitrogen (‘amine’). Thiamine, formerly known as B1, is water soluble. Thiamine is a vital cofactor for enzymes and coenzymes of glycolysis, the Kreb’s cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway. Thiamine is also involved in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid and in nerve propagation.
  • Chemical PropertiesWhite or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless crystals.
  • Chemical PropertiesVitamin B1 has an odor slightly reminiscent of thiazole and a bitter taste. When exposed to air, the vitamin rapidly absorbs about 4% of water.
  • OccurrenceRice husks are reportedly the principal source of vitamin B1; in variable amounts it is a constituent of yeast, milk, green leaves, roots and tubers; it is also present in high concentration in seeds, and in lesser amount in different animal organs and muscles.
  • UsesThiamine is the water-soluble vitamin b1, required for normal digestion and functioning of nerve tissues and in the prevention of beriberi. It also acts as a coenzyme in the metabolism of carbohydrates. During processing, the higher and longer the heating period, the greater the loss. The loss is reduced in the presence of acid. Thiamine hydrochloride and thiamine mononitrate are two available forms. The mononitrate form is less hygroscopic and more stable than the hydrochloride form, making it suitable for use in beverage powders. It is used in enriched flour and is found as thiamine mononitrite in frozen egg substitute and crackers.
  • UsesThiamine is a essential nutrient required for carbohydrate metabolism; also involved in nerve function. Biosynthesized by microorganisms and plants. Dietary sources include whole grains, meat products , vegetables, milk, legumes and fruit. Also present in rice husks and yeast. Converted in vivo to Thiamine diphosphate, a coenzyme in the decarboxylation of α-keto acids. Chronic deficiency may lead t o neurological impairment, bariberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
  • UsesA cofactor required for oxidation of carbohydrates and for the synthesis of ribose.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A hydrochloride obtained by combining thiamine chloride with one molar equivalent of hydrochloric acid.
  • PreparationBy linking the preformed thiazole and pyrimidine ring system.
  • Health HazardDiseases and disorders resulting from a deficiency of thiamine include beriberi, opisthotonos (in birds), polyneuritis, hyperesthesia, bradycardia, and edema. Rather than a specific disease, beriberi may be described as a clinical state resulting from a thiamine deficiency. In body cells, thiamine pyrophosphate is required for removing carbon dioxide from various substances, including pyruvic acid.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by ingestion. The vitamin is destroyed by alkalies and alkaline drugs such as phenobarbital sodium and by oxidzing and reducing agents. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of HCl, Cl-, SOx, and NOx.
  • Environmental FateThiamine and its common phosphate analogs are readily soluble in water and ubiquitously utilized in nature.
  • Purification MethodsThe hydrochloride crystallises from 95% EtOH (solubility is ca 1%). The monohydrate is dehydrated at 100o in vacuo over H2SO4, but is hygroscopic and picks up one molecule of H2O readily. It can be sterilised at 100o if the pH of the solution is below 5.5. The nitrate has m 196-200o(dec) and is more stable than the hydrochloride. The picrolonate crystallises from H2O and is dimorphic, m 164-165o and 228-229o(dec). [Todd & Bergel J Chem Soc 364, 367 1937, J Am Chem Soc 58 1063, 1504 1936, 59 526 1937, Beilstein 27 IV 1766.]
Thiamine hydrochloride Preparation Products And Raw materials
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