Furfural Chemical Properties
- Melting point:−36 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:54-56 °C11 mm Hg
- Density 1.16 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
- vapor density 3.31 (vs air)
- vapor pressure 13.5 mm Hg ( 55 °C)
- refractive index n
- FEMA 2489 | FURFURAL
- Flash point:137 °F
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility 95% ethanol: soluble1ML/mL, clear
- form Liquid
- color very deep brown
- PH>=3.0 (50g/l, 25℃)
- explosive limit2.1-19.3%(V)
- Water Solubility 8.3 g/100 mL
- FreezingPoint -36.5℃
- Sensitive Air Sensitive
- JECFA Number450
- Merck 14,4304
- BRN 105755
- Henry's Law Constant1.52(x 10-6 atm?m3/mol) at 20 °C (approximate - calculated from water solubility and vapor pressure)
- Exposure limitsNIOSH REL: IDLH 100 ppm; OSHA PEL: TWA 5 ppm (20 mg/m3); ACGIH TLV: TWA 2 ppm (adopted).
- Stability:Stable. Substances to be avoided include strong bases, strong oxidizing agents and strong acids. Flammable.
- CAS DataBase Reference98-01-1(CAS DataBase Reference)
- IARC3 (Vol. 63) 1995
- NIST Chemistry Reference2-Furancarboxaldehyde(98-01-1)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemFurfural (98-01-1)
- Hazard Codes T,Xi
- Risk Statements 21-23/25-36/37-40-36/37/38
- Safety Statements 26-36/37/39-45-1/2-36/37
- RIDADR UN 1199 6.1/PG 2
- WGK Germany 2
- RTECS LT7000000
- F 1-8-10
- Autoignition Temperature599 °F &_& 599 °F
- Hazard Note Irritant
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 2932 12 00
- HazardClass 6.1
- PackingGroup II
- Hazardous Substances Data98-01-1(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 127 mg/kg (Jenner)
Furfural Usage And Synthesis
- DescriptionFurfural is an essential renewable, non-petroleum based, chemical feedstock which is primarily composed of various agricultural byproducts, including oat husks, wheat bran, corncobs, and sawdust. Chemically, furfural is an organic compound belonging to an aldehyde of furan with the odor of almonds. It is typically produced for industrial purposes, which can be used as a selective solvent in the process of refining lubricating oils and used in the manufacture of transportation fuels to improve the characteristics of diesel fuel and catalytic cracker recycle stocks. Besides, furfural is applied widely for producing resin-bonded abrasive wheels and purifying butadiene needed for the manufacture of synthetic rubber. It is also used to make other furan chemicals, such as furoic acid and furan itself. Other products of furfural include weed killer, fungicide, other solvents and etc.
- DescriptionFurfural is a colourless to amber-like oily liquid with an almond-like odour. On exposure to light and air, it turns reddish brown. Furfural is used in making chemicals, as a solvent in petroleum refining, a fungicide, and a weed killer. It is incompatible with strong acids, oxidisers, and strong alkalis. It undergoes polymerisation on contact with strong acids or strong alkalis. Furfural is produced commercially by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan polysaccharides from non-food residues of food crops and wood wastes. It is used widely as a solvent in petroleum refining, in the production of phenolic resins, and in a variety of other applications. Human exposure to furfural occurs during its production and use, as a result of its natural occurrence in many foods and from the combustion of coal and wood.
- Chemical PropertiesFurfural is a colorless to yellow aromatic het erocyclic aldehyde with an almond-like odor. Turns amber on exposure to light and air.
- Chemical PropertiesFurfural has a characteristic penetrating odor typical of cyclic aldehydes. Furfural is prepared industrially from pentosans that are contained in cereal straws and brans; these materials are previously digested with diluted H2S04, and the formed furfural steam is distilled.
- Physical propertiesColorless to yellow liquid with an almond-like odor. Turns reddish brown on exposure to light and air. Odor and taste thresholds are 0.4 and 4 ppm, respectively (quoted, Keith and Walters, 1992). Shaw et al. (1970) reported a taste threshold in water of 80 ppm.
- OccurrenceReported found in several essential oils from plants of the Pinaceae family, in the essential oil from Cajenne linaloe, in the oil from leaves of Trifolium pratense and Trifolium incarnatum, in the distillation waters of several essential oils, such as ambrettee and angelica seeds, in Ceylon cinnamon essential oil, in petitgrain oil, ylang-ylang, lavender, lemongrass, calamus, eucalyptus, neroli, sandalwood, tobacco leaves and others Also reported found in many foods including apple, apricot, citrus peel oils and juices, berries, guava, grapes, pineapple, asparagus, kohlrabi, celery, onion, leek, potato, tomato, cinnamon, mustard, bread, cheeses, meats, fsh, cognac, rum, whiskies, cider, grape wine, cocoa, coffee, tea, barley, peanuts, popcorn, pecans, oats, honey, soybeans, passion fruit, plums, mushroom, mango, tamarind, fruit brandies, whiskey malt, white bread, rum, bourbon, cardamom, coriander seed, calamus, corn oil, malt, wort and other sources
- UsesSolvent refining of lubricating oils, resins, and other organic materials; as insecticide, fungicide, germicide; an intermediate for tetrahydrofuran, furfural alcohol, phenolic and furan polymers
- UsesIn the manufacture of furfural-phenol plastics such as Durite; in solvent refining of petroleum oils; in the preparation of pyromucic acid. As a solvent for nitrated cotton, cellulose acetate, and gums; in the manufacture of varnishes; for accelerating vulcanization; as insecticide, fungicide, germicide; as reagent in analytical chemistry. In the synthesis of furan derivatives.
- Definitionfurfural: A colourless liquid,C5H4O2, b.p. 162°C, which darkenson standing in air. It is the aldehydederivative of furan and occurs invarious essential oils and in fuseloil. It is used as a solvent for extractingmineral oils and natural resinsand itself forms resins with somearomatic compounds.
- Production MethodsFurfural is obtained commercially by treating pentosan-rich agricultural residues (corncobs, oat hulls, cottonseed hulls, bagasse, rice hulls) with a dilute acid and removing the furfural by steam distillation. Major industrial uses of furfuraldehyde include: (1) the production of furans and tetrahydrofurans where the compound is an intermediate; (2) the solvent refining of petroleum and rosin products; (3) the solvent binding of bonded phenolic products; and (4) the extractive distillation of butadiene from other C4 hydrocarbons.
When pentoses, e.g., arabinose, xylose, are heated with dilute HCl, furfuraldehyde is formed, recognizable by deep red coloration with phloroglucinol, or by the formation, with phenylhydrazine, of furfuraldehyde phenylhydrazone C4H3O·CH : NNHC6H5, solid, mp 97 °C.
- DefinitionChEBI: An aldehyde that is furan with the hydrogen at position 2 substituted by a formyl group.
- PreparationIndustrially prepared from pentosans that are contained in cereal straws and brans; these materials are previously digested with diluted H2SO4, and the formed furfural steam is distilled.
- ReactionsAside from a darkening in color, furfural is relatively stable thermally and does not exhibit changes in physical properties after prolonged heating up to 230°C. The reactions of furfural are typical of those of the aromatic aldehydes, although some complex side reactions occur because of the reactive ring. Furfural yields acetals, condenses with active methylene compounds, reacts with Grignard reagents, and provides a bisulfite complex. Upon reduction, furfural yields furfural alcohol; upon oxidation, it yields furoic acid. It can be decarbonylated to furan.
- Taste threshold valuesTaste characteristics at 30 ppm: brown, sweet, woody, bready, nutty, caramellic with a burnt astringent nuance.
- Synthesis Reference(s)The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 45, p. 3449, 1980 DOI: 10.1021/jo01305a015
- General DescriptionColorless or reddish-brown mobile liquids with a penetrating odor. Flash points 140°F. Denser than water and soluble in water. Vapors heavier than air. May be toxic by ingestion, skin absorption or inhalation.
- Air & Water ReactionsFlammable. Furfural is sensitive to light and air. Soluble in water, with mixing.
- Reactivity ProfileFurfural reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate. Furfural also can react with strong oxidizers. An exothermic resinification of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalis. Furfural forms condensation products with many types of compounds, including phenol, amines and urea. .
- HazardAbsorbed by skin; irritant to eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Toxic by skin absorption; questionable carcinogen.
- Health HazardVapor may irritate eyes and respiratory system. Liquid irritates skin and may cause dermatitis.
- Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Irritating vapors are generated when heated
- Industrial usesAlso known as furfuraldehyde, furol, and pyromuclealdehyde,furfural is a yellowish liquidwith an aromatic odor, soluble in water and inalcohol, but not in petroleum hydrocarbons. Onexposure, it darkens and gradually decomposes.Furfural occurs in different forms in variousplant life and is obtained from complex carbohydratesknown as pentosans, which occur insuch agricultural wastes as cornstalks, corncobs,straw, oat husks, peanut shells, bagasse,and rice. Furfural is used for making syntheticplastics, as a plasticizer in other synthetic resins,as a preservative in weed killers, and as aselective solvent especially for removing aromaticand sulfur compounds from lubricatingoils. It is also used for the making of butadiene,adiponitrile, and other chemicals.
Various derivatives of furfural are not used,and these, known collectively as furans, are nowmade synthetically from formaldehyde andacetylene, which react to form butyl nedole.
- Safety ProfileConfirmed carcinogen. Poison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intramuscular routes. Moderately toxic by inhalation and sktn contact. Human mutation data reported. A skin and eye irritant. Mutation data reported. The liquid is dangerous to the eyes. The vapor is irritating to mucous membranes and is a central nervous system poison. However, its low volatility reduces its toxicity effect. Ingestion of furfural has produced cirrhosis of the liver in rats. In industry there is a tendency to minimize the danger of acute effects resulting from exposure to it. This is particularly true because of its low volathty. Flammable liquid when exposed to heat or flame; can react with oxidizing materials. Moderate explosion hazard when exposed to heat or flame or by chemical reaction. An exothermic polymerization of almost explosive violence can occur upon contact with strong mineral acids or alkalies. Keep away from heat and open flames. Mixture with sodium hydrogen carbonate ignites spontaneously. To fight fire, use alcohol foam, CO2, dry chemical. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
- Potential ExposureFurfural is used for lube oil refining and butadiene extraction; as a solvent for wood resin, nitrated cotton, cellulose acetate, and gums; in the produc tion of phenolic plastics, thermosetting resins, refined petroleum oils, dyes, and varnishes; in the manufacture of pyromucic acid, vulcanized rubber, insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, germicides, furan derivatives, polymers, and other organic chemicals.
- CarcinogenicityThe IARC evaluated furfural and determined that there was inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of furfural. There is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity of furfural.
- SourceFurfural occurs naturally in many plants including rice (90,000–100,000 ppm), lovage
roots (2 to 20 ppm), caraway, strawberry leaves, cilantro, java cintronella, cassia, ylang-ylang,
sweetflag, Japanese mint, oat husks (100,000 ppm), anise, broad-leaved lavender, myrtle flowers
(0–1 ppm), lemon verbena, Karaya gum (123,000 ppm), nutmeg seeds (15,000 ppm), West Indian
lemongrass, licorice roots (2 ppm), cinnamon bark (3 to 12 ppm), Hyssop shoots (1–2 ppm),
periwinkle leaves, rockrose leaves, and garden dill (Duke, 1992).
Identified as one of 140 volatile constituents in used soybean oils collected from a processing plant that fried various beef, chicken, and veal products (Takeoka et al., 1996).
The gas-phase tailpipe emission rate from California Phase II reformulated gasoline-powered automobile without a catalytic converter was 1.70 mg/km (Schauer et al., 2002).
- Environmental FateBiological. Under nitrate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, furfural biodegraded to
methane and carbon dioxide (Knight et al., 1990). In activated sludge inoculum, following a 20-d
adaptation period, 96.3% COD removal was achieved. The average rate of biodegradation was
37.0 mg COD/g?h (Pitter, 1976).
Photolytic. Atkinson (1985) reported an estimated photooxidation half-life of 10.5 h for the reaction of furfural with OH radicals in the atmosphere.
Chemical/Physical. Slowly resinifies at room temperature (Windholz et al., 1983). May polymerize on contact with strong acids or strong alkalies (NIOSH, 1997).
- ShippingUN1199 Furaldehyde, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, 3-Flammable liquid.
- Purification MethodsFurfural is unstable to air, light and acids. Impurities include formic acid, .-formylacrylic acid and furan-2-carboxylic acid. Distil it in an oil bath from 7% (w/w) Na2CO3 (added to neutralise acids, especially pyromucic acid). Redistil it from 2% (w/w) Na2CO3, and then, finally fractionally distil it under vacuum. It is stored in the dark. [Evans & Aylesworth Ind Eng Chem (Anal ed) 18 24 1926.] Impurities resulting from storage can be removed by passage through chromatographic grade alumina. Furfural can be separated from impurities other than carbonyl compounds by the bisulfite addition compound. The aldehyde is steam volatile. It has been purified by distillation (using a Claisen head) under reduced pressure. This is essential as is the use of an oil bath with temperatures of no higher than 130o which is highly recommended. When furfural is distilled at atmospheric pressure (in a stream of N2), or under reduced pressure with a free flame (caution: because the aldehyde is flammable), an almost colourless oil is obtained. After a few days and sometimes a few hours, the oil gradually darkens and finally becomes black. This change is accelerated by light and occurs more slowly when it is kept in a brown bottle. However, when the aldehyde is distilled under vacuum and the bath temperature kept below 130o during the distillation, the oil develops only a slight colour when exposed to direct sunlight during several days. The distillation of very impure material should NOT be attempted at atmospheric pressure; otherwise the product darkens very rapidly. After one distillation under vacuum, a distillation at atmospheric pressure can be carried out without too much decomposition and darkening. The liquid irritates mucous membranes. Store it in dark containers under N2, preferably in sealed ampoules. [Adams & Voorhees Org Synth Coll Vol I 280 1941, Beilstein 17/9 V 292.]
- IncompatibilitiesMay form explosive mixture with air. Acids and bases can cause polymerization, causing fire or explosion hazard. Reacts violently with oxidants. Incompatible with strong acids; caustics, ammonia, ali phatic amines; alkanolamines, alromatic amines; oxidizers. Attacks many plastics.
- Waste DisposalDissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinera tor equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transpor tation, treatment, and waste disposal.
Furfural Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsSulfuric acid Sodium carbonateAcetoneD(+)-Sucrosepentosan
- Preparation ProductsFurfuryl alcoholFuran2-Methylfuran3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one5-Nitrofurfural Ethyl maltol3-(2-FURYL)PROPANOIC ACID5-Nitro-2-furoic acid5-Nitro-2-furaldehyde diacetateETHYL 3-(2-FURYL)PROPIONATETetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol5-ETHYL-2-FURALDEHYDE5-FORMYL-2-FURANCARBOXYLIC ACIDETHYL 3-(2-FURYL)ACRYLATE2-Furonitrile(ACETYLOXY)(2-FURYL)METHYL ACETATE3-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)acrylic acidFurazolidoneFURFURYL ALCOHOL RESINIndustrial gear oilNitrofurantoinN-METHYLFURFURYLAMINEIndustrial gear oil,weight load2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal2,2'-ThiobisethylamineIndustrial gear oil,middle load2-Formylfuran-5-boronic acid5-[2-CHLORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL]-2-FURALDEHYDE5-[2,6-DICHLORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL]-2-FURALDEHYDE5-[4-FLUORO-3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL]-2-FURALDEHYDE5-(4-Bromophenyl)furfural5-[4-(TRIFLUOROMETHOXY)PHENYL]-2-FURALDEHYDE1,3-DIMETHYL-2-(2-FURYL)IMIDAZOLIDINE
- FURFURAL ALCOHOL Furan 3-FURFURAL,BETA-FURFURAL,3-FURALDEHYDE, 97+%,3-FURALDEHYDE 98% Benzaldehyde Carbofuran Formaldehyde 5-(HYDROXYMETHYL)FURFURAL 99+%,2-Hydroxymethyl-5-furfural,5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural (HMF),5-oxymethylfurfurole,5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-Furancarboxaldehyde,5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural,2-Furaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-,5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde,98+% Paraformaldehyde 2-FURALDEHYDE DIETHYL ACTEAL 5-[2,6-DICHLORO-4-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL!-2-FURALDEHYDE 2-[2,6-DICHLORO-4-(TRIFLUOR, TECH FURFURAL-3,4,5-D3 5-(fluoromethyl)-2-furaldehyde 5-[2-CHLORO-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENYL!-2-FURALDEHYDE, TECH 5-NITRO-2-FURFURAL 5-Borono-2-furaldehyde Furfural FURFURYL ALCOHOL RESIN Nitrofurantoin
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