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1313-13-9

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Identification

Name
Manganese dioxide
CAS
1313-13-9
Synonyms
ACTIVATED MANGANESE DIOXIDE
BLACK MANGANESE OXIDE
MANGANESE(+4)OXIDE
MANGANESE BINOXIDE
MANGANESE BIOXIDE
MANGANESE DIOXIDE
MANGANESE DIOXIDE, ACTIVATED
MANGANESE (IV) DIOXIDE
MANGANESE(IV) OXIDE
MANGANESE(IV) OXIDE ACTIVATED
MANGANESE(IV) OXIDE ON CARRIER
MANGANESE OXIDE
MANGANESE PEROXIDE
MANGANESE SUPEROXIDE
PYROLUSITE
Bog manganese
bogmanganese
Braunstein
Bruinsteen
C.I. 77728
EINECS(EC#)
215-202-6
Molecular Formula
MnO2
MDL Number
MFCD00003463
Molecular Weight
86.94
MOL File
1313-13-9.mol

Chemical Properties

Appearance
black powder
Appearance
Iron-black to dark steel-gray or bluish mineral; black or bluish-black streak; metallic or dull luster. Sol- uble in hydrochloric acid.
Appearance
Manganese dioxide is a black crystalline solid or powder.
mp 
535 °C (dec.)(lit.)

density 
5.02
form 
powder

color 
gray

Stability:
Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong reducing agents, organic materials.
Water Solubility 
insoluble
Merck 
14,5730
Reactivity Profile
The stability of manganese dioxide is due primarily to its insolubility. It is, however, readily attacked by reducing agents in acid solution, for example oxidizing concentrated hydrochloric acid to chlorine. In hot concentrated alkali it dissolves to give a purple solution which contains an equimolar mixture of trivalent manganese, probably as (Mn(OH)6)3- and manganate(V), (MnO4)3-. Manganese dioxide is also one of the most active catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide near room temperature.
Uses
The chemistry of manganese(III) is not extensive, and in the higher oxidation states manganese dioxide and potassium permanganate are the most important compounds.
Manganese dioxide is also used in the manufacture of glass to bleach the colour of any iron present. If excess manganese dioxide is added, a pink coloration can be produced in the glass and if a large excess is present it will appear black.
Other uses of manganese dioxide include its use as an oxidizing agent in organic chemistry and as an oxidizing agent in safety matches, fireworks and flares. It is also an effective adsorbent for hydrogen sulphide and is also used to colour ceramics.
CAS DataBase Reference
1313-13-9(CAS DataBase Reference)
NIST Chemistry Reference
manganese(IV) dioxide(1313-13-9)
EPA Substance Registry System
1313-13-9(EPA Substance)

Safety Data

Hazard Codes 
Xn
Risk Statements 
R20/22:Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed .
Safety Statements 
S25:Avoid contact with eyes .
RIDADR 
3137
WGK Germany 
1

RTECS 
OP0350000

PackingGroup 
III
HS Code 
28201000
Safety Profile
Poison by intravenous and intratracheal routes. Moderately toxic by subcutaneous route. Experimental reproductive effects. A powerful oxidizer. Flammable by chemical reaction. It must not be heated or rubbed in contact with easily oxilzable matter. Violent thermite reaction when heated with aluminum. Potentially explosive reaction with hydrogen peroxide, peroxomonosulfuric acid, chlorates + heat, anilinium perchlorate. Ignition on contact with hydrogen sulfide. Violent reaction with oxidizers, potassium azide (when warmed), diboron tetrafluoride, Incandescent reaction with calcium hydride, chlorine trifluoride, rubidium acetylide (at 350℃). Vigorous reaction with hydroxylaminium chloride. Incompatible with H202, H2SO j, Naz02. Keep away from heat and flammable materials. See also MANGANESE COMPOUNDS.

Raw materials And Preparation Products

Raw materials
Sulfuric acid -->Nitric acid-->Potassium permanganate-->Ammonium bicarbonate-->Sodium chlorate-->Manganese carbonate-->Manganese-->BARIUM SULFIDE-->MANGANESE (II) OXIDE-->Manganese nitrate-->Electrolytic manganese bioxide-->MANGANESE (III) OXIDE-->Magnesia ore
Preparation Products
Mordant Black 13-->Pyridoxal hydrochloride-->1-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-4-piperidinecarboxaldehyde-->5-METHOXY-1H-PYRROLO[2,3-C]PYRIDINE-2-CARBALDEHYDE-->3-CHLORO-4-((CYCLOPROPYLAMINO)METHYL)BENZALDEHYDE-->MANGANESE (II) OXIDE-->2-Chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid-->5-BROMO-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBALDEHYDE-->5-CHLORO-1H-INDOLE-2-CARBALDEHYDE-->Vat Green 1-->LITHIUM MANGANESE OXIDE-->3-(CHLOROMETHYL)-N,N-DIMETHYLBENZENESULFONAMIDE-->CIS-2-AMINOCYCLOHEXANOL HYDROCHLORIDE-->3-AMINO-4-PYRIDINECARBOXYALDEHYDE HYDROCHLORIDE-->Indole-7-carboxaldehyde-->MANGANESE(II) NITRATE TETRAHYDRATE-->Pyridoxal phosphate-->Indole-6-carboxaldehyde-->4-CHLORO-3-((CYCLOPROPYLAMINO)METHYL)BENZALDEHYDE-->Butyl butyrate-->4,6-DIMETHOXYPYRIMIDINE-2-CARBALDEHYDE-->LITHIUM MANGANITE-->Manganese chloride-->Ceramic pigment-->pasted Zn/MnO2 battery-->Manganese chloride tetrahydrate-->lithium manganese dioxide battery-->round type alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide battery-->flat type zinc-manganese dioxide battery-->2,4-Pentadienal-->Pyridoxamine dihydrochloride-->renewable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide battery-->Vat Blue 6-->Vat Blue BC-->button type alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide battery-->trans,trans-2,4-Nonadienal-->Testosterone-->Rum Ether-->Vat Blue 14-->SODIUM PERMANGANATE

Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)

Hazard Information

Hazard
Oxidizing agent, may ignite organic materials.
Potential Exposure
Manganese dioxide is used as depolarizer for dry cell batteries, for production of manganese metal; as an oxidizing agent; laboratory reagent; and in making pyrotechnics and matches; in dry cell batteries.
First aid
If this chemical gets into the eyes, remove any contact lenses at once and irrigate immediately for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower lids. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical contacts the skin, remove contaminated clothing and wash immediately with soap and water. Seek medical attention immediately. If this chemical has been inhaled, remove from exposure, begin rescue breathing (using universal precautions, including resuscitation mask) if breathing has stopped and CPR if heart action has stopped. Transfer promptly to a medical facility. When this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention. Give large quantities of water and induce vomiting. Do not make an unconscious person vomit.
Shipping
UN1479 Oxidizing solid, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer, Technical Name Required. UN3137 (powder) Oxidizing solid, flammable, Hazard Class: 5.1; Labels: 5.1-Oxidizer, 4.1 Flammable solid, Technical Name Required.
Incompatibilities
A powerful oxidizer. Incompatible with strong acids; reducing agents; combustible materials (such as fuel and clothing; organic materials. Mixtures with calcium hydride is a heat- and friction-sensitive explosive. Vigorous reaction with hydrogen sulfide, diboron tetrafluoride; calcium hydride; chlorine trifluoride; hydrogen peroxide; hydroxyaluminum chloride; anilinium perchlorate. Decomposes when heated above 553C producing manganese(III)oxide and oxygen, which increases fire hazard. Reacts violently with aluminum (thermite reaction), potassium azide; rubidium acetylide; in the presence of hea
Waste Disposal
Generators of waste (equal to or greater than 100 kg/mo) containing this contaminant, EPA hazardous waste number N450, must conform to USEPA regulations for storage, transportation, treatment, and disposal of waste. Dispose of waste material as hazardous waste using a licensed disposal contractor to an approved landfill. Dispose of contents and container to an approved waste disposal plant. Containers must be disposed of properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed. Do not discharge into drains or sewers

Questions and Answers (Q&A)

Physical properties
Black tetragonal crystals; density 5.08 g/cm3; Moh’s hardness 6.3; decomposes at 535°C; insoluble in water.
Uses
Manganese(IV) oxide is the most important ore of manganese from which the metal is mostly manufactured. The oxide occurs in nature as the mineral pyrolusite as heavy gray lumps, or black when powdered.
The mineral is used to produce manganese metal, most manganese salts, and also manganese steel and other alloys. The metallurgical applications of manganese(IV) oxide mainly involve making ferromanganese and special manganese alloys. Another important application of manganese(IV) oxide is in manufacturing dry-cell batteries and alkaline cells. The oxide also is a colorant in brick, tile, porcelain and glass; a drier for paints and varnishes; a 552 MANGANESE(IV) OXIDEpreparation for printing and dyeing textiles; a curing agent for polysulfide rubbers; an adsorbent for hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide; an oxidizing agent in many organic syntheses such as quinone and hydroquinone; and a catalyst in laboratory preparation of oxygen from potassium chlorate. Manganese(IV) oxide also is used to make welding rods and fluxes, and ceramic magnets (ferrites); and is an additive to fertilizers.
Preparation
Pure manganese(IV) oxide (precipitate form) may be prepared by reducing permanganate ion with a manganous salt:
2KMnO4 + 3MnSO4 + 2H2O → 5MnO2 + K2SO4 + 2H2SO4
Manganese(IV) oxide can also be precipitated by oxidation of a manganese(II) salt using an oxidizing agent such as hypochlorite or peroxydisulphate:
Mn2+ + S2O82– + 2H2O → MnO2 + 2SO42– + 4H+
Manganese(IV) oxide may also be made by thermal decomposition of manganese(II) nitrate; or from roasting manganese(II) carbonate in air: Mn(NO3)2 → MnO2 + 2NO2
MnCO3 + ½ O2 → MnO2 + CO2
A highly active gamma-MnO2 can be produced by treating manganese(III) oxide with hot sulfuric acid:
Mn2O3 + H2SO4 → MnO2 + MnSO4 + H2O
Mn2O3 is derived from pyrolusite by heating the mineral at 600–800°C or reducing with powdered coal at 300°C.

Questions And Answer

Description
Manganese dioxide, mainly used as a depolarizer in dry cell batteries, is the most important non-metallic form of manganese. In either traditional alkaline and rechargeable battery cells, Manganese dioxide takes in electrons through a redox reaction, becoming Manganese III oxide. It also has applications in lithium-ion technologies.
It is also the primary precursor to ferromanganese, an alloy of iron used for its lower melting point and low cost.
It is black in appearance and used to color glass and ceramics, as well as for cave art and possibly body paint in prehistorical eras. Further uses include the purification of drinking water, and production of pure oxygen and chlorine.
Chemical Properties
Manganese dioxide ( MnO2 ) , known as pyrolusite when found in nature , is the most plentiful of all the manganese compounds. MnO2 is Iron-black to dark steel-gray or bluish mineral; black or bluish-black streak; metallic or dull luster. Soluble in hydrochloric acid.
Manganese dioxide
Manganese dioxide is an important component in batteries. It is also used in glassmaking to remove the green fint caused by iron impurities.
Uses
The chemistry of manganese(III) is not extensive, and in the higher oxidation states manganese dioxide and potassium permanganate are the most important compounds.
Manganese dioxide is also used in the manufacture of glass to bleach the colour of any iron present. If excess manganese dioxide is added, a pink coloration can be produced in the glass and if a large excess is present it will appear black.
Other uses of manganese dioxide include its use as an oxidizing agent in organic chemistry and as an oxidizing agent in safety matches, fireworks and flares. It is also an effective adsorbent for hydrogen sulphide and is also used to colour ceramics.
Toxicity evaluation
Inhalation exposure to high concentrations of manganese dusts (specifically manganese dioxide [MnO2] and manganese tetroxide [Mn3O4]) can cause an inflammatory response in the lung, which, over time, can result in impaired lung function. Lung toxicity is manifested as an increased susceptibility to infections such as bronchitis and can result in manganic pneumonia. Pneumonia has also been observed following acute inhalation exposures to particulates containing other metals. Thus, this effect might be characteristic of inhalable particulate matter and might not depend solely on the manganese content of the particle.
Resources
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2013/736375/
https://b2bbusinessnews.wordpress.com/2012/03/22/uses-and-benefits-of-manganese-dioxide/
http://metalpedia.asianmetal.com/metal/manganese/application.shtml
https://www.chemistryworld.com/podcasts/manganese-dioxide/9217.article
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese_dioxide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferroalloy

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