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Thiourea

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Thiourea Basic information
Thiourea Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:171 °C
  • Boiling point:263.89°C (estimate)
  • Density 1.405
  • refractive index 1.5300 (estimate)
  • storage temp. Store at RT.
  • solubility water: soluble137g/L at 20°C
  • form Crystals
  • pka-1.0(at 25℃)
  • color White to almost white
  • Specific Gravity1.406
  • OdorOdorless
  • PH6-8 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
  • PH Range5 - 7
  • Water Solubility 13.6 g/100 mL (20 ºC)
  • Merck 14,9367
  • BRN 605327
  • Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong acids, strong bases, strong oxidizing agents, metallic salts, proteins, hydrocarbons. May react violently with acrolein.
  • InChIKeyUMGDCJDMYOKAJW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS DataBase Reference62-56-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • IARC3 (Vol. Sup 7, 79) 2001
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceThiourea(62-56-6)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemThiourea (62-56-6)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes Xn,N,Xi
  • Risk Statements 22-40-51/53-63-43-38
  • Safety Statements 36/37-61
  • RIDADR UN 2811 6.1/PG 3
  • WGK Germany 2
  • RTECS YU2800000
  • Autoignition Temperature440 °C Dust
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 6.1
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29309070
  • Hazardous Substances Data62-56-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in wild Norway rats: 1830 mg/kg (Dieke)
MSDS
Thiourea Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionThiourea appears as white crystal/powder, is combustible, and on contact with fire, gives off irritating or toxic fumes/gases. Thiourea is a reducing agent used primarily in the production of bleached recycled pulp. In addition, it is also effective in the bleaching of stone groundwood, pressurised groundwood. Thiourea undergoes decomposition on heating and produces toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. It reacts violently with acrolein, strong acids, and strong oxidants. The main application of thiourea is in textile processing and also is commonly employed as a source of sulphide. Thiourea is a precursor to sulphide to produce metal sulphides, for example, mercury sulphide, upon reaction with the metal salt in aqueous solution. The industrial uses of thiourea include production of flame-retardant resins and vulcanisation accelerators. Thiourea is used as an auxiliary agent in diazo paper, light-sensitive photocopy paper, and almost all other types of copy paper. Thiourea is used in many industrial applications, including as a chemical intermediate or catalyst, in metal processing and plating, and in photoprocessing.
  • Chemical PropertiesThiourea consists of colorless, lustrous crystals or powder with a bitter taste.
  • Chemical Propertieswhite crystals or powder
  • UsesThe product is wildly used in pharmaceutical industry, agricultural, chemicals, metallurgical industry, petroleum and so on. It is also main material for producing thiourea dioxide(CH1N2O2S).
  • UsesChaotropic agent; strong denaturant. Increases solubility and recovery of proteins
  • UsesUsed in determination of bismuth.
  • UsesIn animal glue liquifiers and silver tarnish removers. Photographic fixing agent and to remove stains from negatives; manufacture of resins; vulcanization accelerator; a reagent for bismuth, selenite ions.
  • UsesThiourea is used in the manufacture of resins,as a vulcanization accelerator, and as aphotographic fixing agent and to removestains from negatives.
  • UsesThe most common uses for thiourea have been for the production of thiourea dioxide (30%), in leaching of gold and silver ores (25%), in diazo papers (15%), and as a catalyst in the synthesis of fumaric acid (10%) (IARC 2001). It has also been used in the production and modification of synthetic resins. Other uses of thiourea are as a photographic toning agent, in hair preparations, as a drycleaning agent, in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and pesticides, in boiler-water treatment, and as a reagent for bismuth and selenite ions. It has also been used in textile and dyeing auxiliaries, in the production of industrial cleaning agents (e.g., for photographic tanks and metal surfaces in general), for engraving metal surfaces, as an isomerization catalyst in the conversion of maleic to fumaric acid, in copper-refining electrolysis, in electroplating, and as an antioxidant. Other uses have included as a vulcanization accelerator, an additive for slurry explosives,as a viscosity stabilizer for polymer solutions, and as a mobility buffer in petroleum extraction. It is also used as an ingredient of consumer silver polishes (HPD 2009), and has been used in the removal of mercury from wastewater by chlorine-alkali electrolysis (IARC 1974, 2001, WHO 2003).
  • Production MethodsThiourea is formed by heating ammonium thiocyanate at 170 °C (338 °F). After about an hour, 25% conversion is achieved. With HCl, thiourea forms thiourea hydrochloride; with mercuric oxide, thiourea forms a salt; and with silver chloride, it forms a complex salt.
  • DefinitionA colorless crystalline organic compound (the sulfur analog of urea). It is converted to the inorganic compound ammonium thiocyanate on heating. It is used as a sensitizer in photography and in medicine.
  • Definitionthiourea: A white crystalline solid,(NH2)2CS; r.d. 1.4; m.p. 182°C. It isused as a fixer in photography.
  • DefinitionChEBI: The simplest member of the thiourea class, consisting of urea with the oxygen atom substituted by sulfur.
  • General DescriptionWhite or off-white crystals or powder. Sinks and mixes with water.
  • Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
  • Reactivity ProfileThiocarbamide is a white crystalline material or powder, toxic, carcinogenic. When heated to decomposition Thiocarbamide emits very toxic fumes of oxides of sulfur and oxides of nitrogen. Violent exothermic polymerization reaction with acrylaldehyde (acrolein) [MCA SD-85, 1961], violent decomposition of the reaction product with hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid [Bjorklund G. H. et al., Trans. R. Soc. Can.,1950, 44, p. 28], spontaneous explosion upon grinding with potassium chlorate [Soothill, D., Safety Management, 1992, 8(6), p. 11].
  • HazardA questionable carcinogen. May not be used in food products (FDA); skin irritant (allergenic).
  • Health HazardPoisonous inhaled or swallowed. Irritating to skin; may cause allergic skin eruptions.
  • Health HazardThe acute oral toxicity of thiourea in mostanimals is of low order. The oral LD50 values reported in the literature show variation.Symptoms of chronic effects in rats includebone marrow depression and goiters. Administration of 32.8 mol of thiourea in chickembryos on day 17 of incubation resultedin the accumulation of parabronchial liquidin those embryos (Wittman et al. 1987). Theinvestigators have attributed such changes tothe toxic effects of thiourea, rather to than aretardation of pulmonary development.
    Dedon and coworkers (1986) observed thepossible protective action of thiourea againstplatinum toxicity. Thiourea and other sulfur-containing nucleophiles have the ability tochelate and remove platinum from biochemical sites of toxicity.
    Oral administration of thiourea resultedin tumors in the liver and thyroid in rats.It is carcinogenic to animals and has shownsufficient evidence.
  • Fire HazardNoncombustible solid. There is no report of any explosion resulting from reactions of thiourea. Small amounts of thiourea in contact with acrolein may polymerize acrolein, which is a highly exothermic reaction.
  • Agricultural UsesThiourea is a sulphur analogue of urea. It is a crystalline and colorless solid which is relatively insoluble in water. Thiourea, capable of breaking the dormancy of seeds, is used to stimulate seed germination. Seeds are soaked for less than 24 hours before planting.
  • Contact allergensThiourea is used as a cleaner agent for silver and cop- per, and as an antioxidant in diazo copy paper. It can induce (photo-) contact dermatitis.
  • Potential ExposureThiourea is used as rubber antiozonant, toning agent; corrosion inhibitor; and in pharmaceutical manufacture; in the manufacture of photosensitive papers; flame-retardant textile sizes; boiler water treatment. It is also used in photography; pesticide manufacture; in textile chemicals.
  • CarcinogenicityThiourea is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in experimental animals.
  • ShippingUN2811 Toxic solids, organic, n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required. UN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required.
  • Purification MethodsCrystallise thiourea from absolute EtOH, MeOH, acetonitrile or water. Dry it under vacuum over H2SO4 at room temperature. [Beilstein 3 IV 342.]
  • IncompatibilitiesDust may form explosive mixture with air. Reacts violently with acrolein, strong acids (nitric acid). Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides.
  • Waste DisposalConsult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal.
Thiourea Preparation Products And Raw materials
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