ChemicalBook > Product Catalog > Organic Chemistry > Carboxylic acids and derivatives > Carboxylic Acid Salts > Sodium formate
Basic information Chemical properties Solubility in water Sodium formate and calcium formate Uses Production method Safety Related Supplier
Sodium formate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:259-262 °C(lit.)
- Boiling point:360 °C
- Density 1.16 g/mL at 20 °C
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- solubility H2O: 8 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
- form Crystalline Powder
- Specific Gravity1.92
- color White to off-white
- OdorSlight formic acid odour
- PH7.0-8.5 (50g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- PH Range7 - 8.5
- Water Solubility Soluble
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.02
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
- Sensitive Hygroscopic
- Hydrolytic Sensitivity0: forms stable aqueous solutions
- Merck 14,8621
- BRN 3595134
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids. Protect from moisture.
- CAS DataBase Reference141-53-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferenceSodium methanoate(141-53-7)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemSodium formate (141-53-7)
Sodium formate Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical propertiesIt is a white powder, with water absorption and a slight odor of formic acid. It is dissolved in water and glycerol, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether.
- Solubility in waterDissolved quantity per 100 ml of water at different temperatures (℃) in grams:
43.9g/0 ℃, 62.5g/10 ℃, 81.2g/20 ℃, 102g/30 ℃, 108g/40 ℃
122g/60 ℃, 138g/80 ℃, 147g/90 ℃, 160g/100 ℃
- Sodium formate and calcium formateSodium formate and calcium formate are two kinds of common metal salts of formic acid, sodium formate, also known as sodium formate, There are two kinds of molecular forms of sodium formate compounds in nature:
① as a white crystalline powder, anhydrous sodium formate is slightly hygroscopic, poisonous. The relative density is 1.92 (20 ℃), m.p. is 253 ℃. It is dissolved in water, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether.
② sodium formate dihydrate is colorless crystals. With slight formic acid odor, it is toxic. It is dissolved in water and glycerine, slightly soluble in ethanol. It broke down into hydrogen and sodium oxalate under strong heat, and finally converted into sodium carbonate. It is produced by the interaction of formic acid and sodium hydroxide.
The main purpose of sodium formate as follows:
Sodium formate can be used as chemical analysis reagent, used for determination of arsenic and phosphorus, also used as a disinfectant, mordant and so on. Powdered sodium formate is used in industrial instand of formic acid to improve the performance of limestone FGD systems, the advantage is application safety and health.
Preparation of sodium formate: Sodium bicarbonate reacts with formic acid in laboratory, remain the solution basic, remove Fe3 +, filtered, and add formic acid into the filtrate, and the solution was acidic, then evaporate, crystallize to obtain crude sodium.
Calcium is a free-flowing white crystalline powder, with mouldproof, fungicidal, antibacterial effects, is an organic acid feed additive. Its content is 99%, with 69% formic acid, 31% calcium, low water content. This product has a high melting point, is not easy to be destroyed in the particle mass. Feed is added 0.9% to 1.5%. This product is broken down into formic acid in the stomach, reduces the pH of the stomach, maintains digestive acidity, prevents the growth of bacteria to control and prevent bacterial infection-related diarrhea. Trace acid activates pepsinogen role in enhancing the absorption of active ingredients in feed, and producing chelation with minerals in feed to promote digestion and absorption of minerals, also be used as a supplement of calcium. For the prevention of diarrhea of piglets and improve survival, promote feed conversion and daily gain.
The above information is collected and finished by Xiaonan of Chemicalbook.
- Uses1. Sodium formate is mainly for the production of formic acid, oxalic acid and insurance powder and so on.
2. It is used as the reagent for the determination of phosphorus and arsenic, disinfectant and mordant.
3. It is used as preservatives, with diuretic effect. It is mutatis mutandis in EEC countries, but the British are not allowed to use.
4. Sodium formate is used as intermediates in the production of formic acid and oxalic acid, but also for the production of dimethyl formamide, also used in medicine, printing and dyeing industry. It is also heavy metal precipitant.
5. It is used as alkyd paints, plasticizers, high explosives, acid-resistant materials, aviation lubricants, additives of adhesives.
6. It is used for precipitating noble metal, may form trivalent metal complex ions in the solution. With buffer effect, it can be used for correcting pH value of strong mineral acids to be higher. It is precipitant of heavy metal.
- Production method1. It is obtained in industrial by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide at 150-170 ℃, about 2MPa. In fact, the production process of sodium formate is part of the production of sodium oxalate, the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution for absorbing the reaction was 25%-30%. Sodium formate can be produced by the reaction of formic acid with oxygen or sodium bicarbonate. Material consumption fixed: Carbon monoxide (> 28%) 1630kg/t, caustic soda (> 30%) 2160kg/t. 2. It is the byproduct of pentaerythritol.
2. It is obtained by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide at 160 ℃, 2MPa.
- DescriptionSodium formate, HCOONa, is the sodium salt of formic acid, HCOOH. It usually appears as a white deliquescent powder.
- Chemical Propertieswhite crystals
- Physical propertiesWhite crystals; slightly hygroscopic; faint odor of formic acid; density 1.92 g/cm3; melts at 253°C; decomposes on further heating, first forming sodium oxalate and hydrogen and then sodium carbonate; very soluble in water; the aqueous solution neutral, pH about 7; soluble in glycerol; slightly soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether.
- UsesSodium formate is used in several fabric dyeing and printing processes. It is also used as a buffering agent for strong mineral acids to increase their pH, and as a food additive ( E237 ) .
- UsesPrecipitant for noble metals.
- UsesIn dyeing and printing fabrics; also In animal chemistry as a precipitant for the "noble" metals. Solubilizes trivalent metal ions in solution by forming complex ions. Buffering action adjusts the pH of strong mineral acids to higher values.
- DefinitionChEBI: An organic sodium salt which is the monosodium salt of formic acid.
- PreparationSodium formate can be prepared in the laboratory by neutralizing formic acid with sodium carbonate. It can also be obtained by reacting chloroform with an alcoholic solution of sodium hydroxide.
CHCl3 + 4NaOH → HCOONa + 3NaCl + 2H2O
or by reacting sodium hydroxide with chloral hydrate.
C2HCl3(OH)2 + NaOH → CHCl3 + HCOONa + H2O
The latter method is, in general, preferred to the former because the low aqueous solubility of CHCl3 makes it easier to separate out from the sodium formate solution, by fractional crystallization, than the soluble NaCl would be.
For commercial use, sodium formate is produced by absorbing carbon monoxide under pressure in solid sodium hydroxide at 160 °C.
CO + NaOH → HCOONa
Sodium formate may also be created via the haloform reaction between ethanol and sodium hypochlorite in the presence of a base.
- Safety ProfileModerately toxic by ingestion, intravenous, and subcutaneous routes. Combustible when exposed to heat or flame. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NazO. See also FORMIC ACID.
- Purification MethodsA saturated aqueous solution at 90o (0.8mL water/g) is filtered and allowed to cool slowly. (The final temperature should be above 30o to prevent formation of the hydrate.) After two such crystallissations, the crystals are dried in an oven at 130o, then under high vacuum. [Westrum et al. J Phys Chem 64 1553 1960, Roecker & Meyer J Am Chem Soc 108 4066 1986.] The salt has also been recrystallised twice from 1mM DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, which was recrystallised 4x from MilliQ water and dried in a vacuum), then twice from water [Bielski & Thomas J Am Chem Soc 109 7761 1987]. [Beilstein 2 IV 3.]
Sodium formate Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsSodium sulfateFormic acidSodium dithioniteFormamideOxalic acidPalladium diacetateMethyl anthranilate3-Phenoxybenzyl alcohol2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-propanediolmethyl(±)cis，trans-2，2-dimethyl-3-(2-methyl-1-propenyl cyclopropane carboxylate)4,4'-Oxydianiline6,6'-Dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridylMolinateEthyl imidazole-4-carboxylateFENOTHIOCARBAsulamMethabenzthiazurondibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dioneBenzyl formateZinc bis dimethyldithiocarbamateDisodium oxalateSODIUM DITHIONATE1-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic acidCINCHOPHENEthyl ziram 4-HYDROXY-3-METHYLBENZOIC ACID1-Methyl-3-phenyl-2-thiourea2-[3-(1,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethyl-2H-indol-2-ylidene)prop-1-enyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium chloride Isopentyl formateFormyl acetateauxiliary chrome tanning agent
- Raw materialsSodium hydroxideCARBON MONOXIDEPentaerythritol2,2-Dimethyl-1,3-propanediolSODIUM OXIDE
- Formic acid Sodium methanolate Sodium sulfate 8-CHLOROADENOSINE-3',5'-CYCLIC MONOPHOSPHOROTHIOATE, RP-ISOMER SODIUM SALT MESOXALIC ACID MONOHYDRATE DISODIUM SALT 3',3'',5',5''-TETRAIODOPHENOLPHTHALEIN, SODIUM SALT Methyl Red sodium salt Mordant Blue 29 Sodium salicylate NAPHTHOCHROME GREEN sodium phenylglyoxylate BETA-FLUOROPYRUVIC ACID SODIUM SALT Sodium formate Sodium benzoate Sodium acetate Sodium bicarbonate Ethyl formate Ammonium formate
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