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Ammonium formate

Basic information Description References Safety Related Supplier
Ammonium formate Basic information
Ammonium formate Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:119-121 °C (lit.)
  • Boiling point:103.28°C (rough estimate)
  • Density 1.26 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
  • refractive index 1.4164 (estimate)
  • Flash point:104℃
  • storage temp. Inert atmosphere,Room Temperature
  • solubility H2O: 10 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless
  • form Solid
  • color White
  • OdorSlight formic acid odour
  • PH Range6 - 7
  • PH6.0-8.0 (25℃, 10M in H2O)
  • Water Solubility soluble
  • Sensitive Hygroscopic
  • λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.05
    λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.04
  • Merck 14,523
  • BRN 3625095
  • Stability:Stable. Hygroscopic. Incompatible with strong acids, strong oxidizing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference540-69-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemAmmonium formate (540-69-2)
Safety Information
Ammonium formate Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionAmmonium formate is the ammonium salt of formic acid, and is a colorless, hydroscopic, crystalline solid. It can be synthesized through treating ammonium carbonate with 85% formic acid. It is widely used in many organic reactions such as Leuckart reaction which is the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones. It can also be used as a buffer in HPLC and LC/MS test. Moreover, it is also used in palladium on carbon (Pd/C) reduction of functional group. It can also be used for the preparation of formic acid in situ as well as being used to store formic acid.
  • References
  • DescriptionAmmonium formate, NH4HCO2, is the ammonium salt of formic acid. It is a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline solid.
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless crystals
  • Physical propertiesWhite monoclinic deliquescent crystals or granules; density 1.280 g/cm3; melts at 116°C; highly soluble in water (102 g/100 g at 0°C), solubility rapidly increasing with temperature (i.e., 531 g/100 g at 80°C); soluble in liquid ammonia, alcohol and ether.
  • UsesIn chemical analysis, especially to ppt base metals from salts of the "noble" metals.
  • UsesPure ammonium formate decomposes into formamide and water when heated, and this is its primary use in industry. Formic acid can also be obtained by reacting ammonium formate with a dilute acid, and since ammonium formate is also produced from formic acid, it can serve as a way of storing formic acid.
    Ammonium formate can also be used in palladium on carbon (Pd / C) reduction of functional groups. In the presence of Pd / C, ammonium formate decomposes to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia.
    Ammonium formate can be used for reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones (Leuckart reaction)
    Ammonium formate can be used as a buffer in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and is suitable for use with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). .
  • DefinitionChEBI: The ammonium salt of formic acid.
  • ReactionsWhen heated, ammonium formate eliminates water, forming formamide. Upon further heating it forms to HCN and H2O. A side reaction of this is the decomposition of formamide to CO and NH3.
  • General DescriptionWhite solid with a weak odor of ammonia. Sinks and mixes slowly with water.
  • Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
  • Reactivity ProfileSalts, basic, such as Ammonium formate, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.
  • Health HazardInhalation causes irritation of nose and throat. Ingestion irritates mouth and stomach. Contact with eyes or skin causes irritation.
  • Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic and irritating ammonia and formic acid gases may form in fire.
  • Safety ProfileModerately toxic by ingestion andintravenous routes. When heated to decomposition itemits toxic fumes of NOx and NH3.
  • Purification MethodsHeat the solid in NH3 vapour and dry it in a vacuum till the NH3 odour is faint (note that it can evaporate completely in a vacuum). Recrystallise it from absolute EtOH and then keep it in a desiccator over 99% H2SO4 in vacuo. It is very hygroscopic. It exists in two forms, stable needles and less stable plates. It also forms acid salts, i.e. HCO2NH4.3HCO2H and HCO2NH4.HCO2H. [Kensall & Adler J Am Chem Soc 43 1473 1921, Beilstein 2 IV 18.]
Ammonium formate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Ammonium formate(540-69-2)Related Product Information
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