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Sulfuryl chloride

Basic information Uses Preparation Toxicity Safety Related Supplier
Sulfuryl chloride Basic information
Sulfuryl chloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-54.1 °C
  • Boiling point:69.1 °C
  • Density 1.667
  • vapor density 4.7 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 100 mm Hg ( 17.8 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.443(lit.)
  • Flash point:69.1°C
  • solubility Miscible with benzene, toluene, chloroform, ether, carbon tetrachloride and glacial acetic acid.
  • form Liquid
  • color Clear colorless to yellow
  • Specific Gravity1.670 (20/20℃)
  • Water Solubility reacts
  • Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
  • Merck 14,8980
  • Stability:Reacts violently with water. Incompatible with acids, alcohols, bases, metals, amines, moisture.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7791-25-5(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceSulfuryl chloride(7791-25-5)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemSulfuryl chloride (7791-25-5)
Safety Information
MSDS
Sulfuryl chloride Usage And Synthesis
  • UsesSulfuryl chloride is used as a chlorinating and sulfonating agent in organic synthesis. It also is used in military gas.
  • PreparationSulfuryl chloride is prepared by reacting sulfur dioxide with chlorine in the presence of a catalyst, such as activated carbon or camphor. Both the gases should be in dry form and passed over the catalyst:
    SO2 + Cl2 → SO2Cl2
    Also, the compound can be obtained by heating chlorosulfonic acid in the presence of a catalyst: 2ClSO3H → SO2Cl2 + H2SO4
  • ToxicitySulfuryl chloride is highly corrosive to skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Reactions with alkalies, lead dioxide, phosphorus and dimethyl sulfoxide can be violent.
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless or pale yellow liquid
  • Chemical PropertiesA colorless to light yellow fuming liquid. Pungent acrid odor.
  • Physical propertiesColorless, mobile liquid; turns yellow on standing; very pungent odor; refractive index 1.4437 at 20°C; density 1.667 g/mL at 20°C; vapors heavier than air, vapor density 4.7 (air=1); melts at -51°C; boils at 69.4°C; sparingly soluble in water, decomposing slowly to sulfuric and hydrochloric acids; forms a hydrate SO2Cl2?15H2O with ice-cold water; miscible with benzene, toluene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and glacial acetic acid; decomposed by alkalies (violent reaction occurs).
  • UsesChlorinating and sulfonating or chlorosulfonating agent in organic syntheses, e.g., in the manufacture of chlorophenol and chlorothymol. Has been used in war gas formulations.
  • General DescriptionA colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Very toxic by inhalation. Corrosive to metals and tissue.
  • Reactivity ProfileSulfuryl chloride reacts exothermically with water. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, alcohols, amines. Reacts violently with bases. Attacks many metals. Can react explosively with lead dioxide [Mellor 10:676 1946-47]. May react vigorously or explosively if mixed with diisopropyl ether or other ethers in the presence of trace amounts of metal salts [J. Haz. Mat., 1981, 4, 291].
  • HazardStrong irritant to tissue.
  • Health HazardVapors cause severe irritation of eyes and respiratory system. Liquid burns eyes and skin. If ingested, can cause severe burns of mouth and stomach.
  • Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: Toxic and irritating gases are generated.
  • Safety ProfileA corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Questionable carcinogen with experimental tumorigenic data. Can explode with Pb02. Will react with water or steam to produce heat and toxic and corrosive fumes. Incompatible with alkalies, diethyl ether, dimethyl sulfoxide,dinitrogen pentaoxide, lead dioxide, phosphorus. When heated to decomposition it emits highly toxic fumes of Cland SOx. See also SULFURIC ACID and HYDROCHLORIC ACID, which are formed upon hydrolysis.
  • Potential ExposureSulfuryl chloride is used to make other chemicals, including chlorophenol and chlorothymol, disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, phosphate insecticides, heterocyclic herbicides, fungicides, dyestuffs, and some plastics; as a solvent and catalyst; as a chlorosulfonating agent in organic synthesis. Also used as a dehydrating agent, as cathode material and in lithium batteries; as a wool treatment to prevent shrinkage.
  • ShippingUN1834 Sulfuryl chloride, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poison Inhalation Hazard; 8-Corrosive material; Inhalation Hazard Zone A. STN: 4930260; Sulfuryl chloride.
  • IncompatibilitiesWater and air reactive. When spilled in water, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid are produced. Forms corrosive mixture with air (NFPA Fire Rating: 0). Reacts exothermically with moisture in air, water or steam, releasing heat and yielding sulfuric acid and HCl vapors. Reacts violently with bases, amines, amides, inorganic hydroxides; alkalis, alkali metals, dimethyl sulfoxide, dinitrogen pentoxide, lead dioxide (explosive reaction); N-methylformamide, red phosphorus. Reacts, possibly violently, with oxidizers, organic substances, strong acids, alcohols, amines, ethers e.g., diethyl ether, diisopropyl ether, especially if trace amounts of metal salts are present); glycols, peroxides. Attacks metals in the presence of moisture, forming flammable hydrogen gas. Acid formed by reaction with water can be neutralized by limestone, lime, or soda ash.
  • Waste DisposalWear nitrile rubber gloves, laboratory coat, eye protection and, if necessary, a SCBA. Cover the spill with a 1:1:1 mixture by weight of sodium carbonate or calcium carbonate, clay cat litter (bentonite) and sand. When the sulfuryl chloride has been absorbed, scoop the mixture into a plastic pail of cold water. Allow to stand for 24 hours. Test the pH of the solution and neutralize if necessary with sodium carbonate. Decant the solution to the drain flushing with 50 times its volume of water. Treat the solid residue as normal refuse.
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