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1-Chlorobutane Basic information
1-Chlorobutane Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-123 °C
  • Boiling point:77-78 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.886 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor density 3.2 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 80.1 mm Hg ( 78.4 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.402(lit.)
  • Flash point:-12 °F
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility water: soluble0.11g/L at 20°C
  • form Viscous Liquid
  • color White to pink to light brown
  • OdorUnpleasant odor
  • explosive limit1.8-10.1%(V)
  • Water Solubility 0.5 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Merck 14,1560
  • BRN 1730909
  • Stability:Stable. Highly flammable. Note low flash point and wide explosion limit range. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases.
  • CAS DataBase Reference109-69-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceButane, 1-chloro-(109-69-3)
  • EPA Substance Registry System1-Chlorobutane (109-69-3)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes F
  • Risk Statements 11
  • Safety Statements 9-16-29
  • RIDADR UN 1127 3/PG 2
  • WGK Germany 2
  • RTECS EJ6300000
  • 1-10
  • Autoignition Temperature860 °F
  • TSCA Yes
  • HazardClass 3
  • PackingGroup II
  • HS Code 29031990
  • Hazardous Substances Data109-69-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 2.67 g/kg (Smyth)
1-Chlorobutane Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Properties1-Chlorobutane is a highly flammable, clear, colorless liquid at standard temperature and pressure. The density is 0.886 g/cm3, which is lower than that of water. It does not react with water, is classified as highly flammable, but it is neither an oxidizer nor an explosive. However, vapors can form explosive mixtures with air. The substance self-ignites at 245℃.
  • Uses1-Chlorobutane is used as an intermediate for the production of other chemicals in the chemical industry.
    1-chlorobutane is a common extraction solvent in the forensic toxicology arena. A benefit of 1-chlorobutane is that it is less dense than water and therefore settles above the aqueous layer.
    As butylating agent in organic synthesis, e.g., in the manufacture of butyl cellulose.
    1-chlorobutane will be halogenated to produce dichlorobutane using sulfuryl chloride via a free-radical chain reaction mechanism.
  • Preparation1-Chlorobutane is obtained by esterification of n-butanol with hydrogen chloride or hydrochloric acid at 100℃ either without a catalyst or utilizing the accelerating effect of zinc chloride, tripentylamine hydrochloride, or phosphorus pentachloride. n-Butyl chloride is also obtained, along with 2-chlorobutane, by the chlorination of butane over aluminum oxide at 200℃.
  • Synthesis Reference(s)Journal of the American Chemical Society, 87, p. 2500, 1965 DOI: 10.1021/ja01089a041
    The Journal of Organic Chemistry, 59, p. 4687, 1994 DOI: 10.1021/jo00095a054
  • General DescriptionA water white liquid with a sharp odor. Flash point 20°F. Boiling point 77-78°C (173°F). Density 7.5 lb / gal. Slightly soluble in water. Vapors are heavier than air. Used in the manufacture of a variety of organic chemicals.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. May react with atmospheric moisture over prolonged periods of exposure. Slightly soluble in water.
  • Reactivity Profile1-Chlorobutane is incompatible with oxidizing agents and strong bases. Reacts with aluminum powder, liquid oxygen, potassium and sodium . Emits phosgene gas when heated to decomposition,. Reacts with aluminum and magnesium. May be sensitive to heat.
  • HazardToxic on prolonged inhalation. Flammable, dangerous fire risk.
  • Health Hazard1-Chlorobutane has a low acute toxicity by oral exposure. mildly irritating to the skin and eyes, liquid may cause rash due to removal of skin oils. Ingestion or skin absorbtion may cause intestinal upset, cramping, and central nervous system depression. 1- Chlorobutane is also not considered mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction.
  • Fire HazardSpecial Hazards of Combustion Products: May produce phosgene gas in fire
  • Safety ProfileModerately toxic by ingestion. Mutation data reported. See CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS, ALIPHATIC. Skin and eye irritant. Dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Moderately explosive when exposed to flame. When heated to decomposition it emits hghly toxic fumes of phosgene and Cl-. To fight fire, use foam, COa, dry chemical. Incompatible with oxidizing materials
  • Potential ExposureButyl chloride is used as a solvent; as a medicine to control worms, and to make other chemicals
  • ShippingUN1127 Chlorobutanes require, Hazard Class: 3; Labels: 3—Flammable liquid
  • Purification MethodsShake it repeatedly with conc H2SO4 (until no further colour develops in the acid), then wash it with water, aqueous NaHCO3 or Na2CO3, and more water. Dry it with CaCl2, or MgSO4 (then with P2O5 if desired), decant and fractionally distil it. Alternatively, a stream of oxygen continuing ca three times as long as is necessary to obtain the first coloration of starch iodide paper by the exit gas. After washing with NaHCO3 solution to hydrolyse ozonides and to remove the resulting organic acid, the liquid is dried and distilled [Chien & Willard J Am Chem Soc 75 6160 1953]. [Beilstein 1 IV 246.]
  • IncompatibilitiesVapor may form explosive mixture with air. May accumulate static electrical charges, and may cause ignition of its vapors. Water contact slowly forms hydrochloric acid. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, alkaline earth, and alkali metals; finely divided metal. Attacks metals in presence of moisture. Attacks some plastics, rubber, or coatings
  • Waste DisposalDissolve or mix the material with a combustible solvent and burn in a chemical incinerator equipped with an afterburner and scrubber. All federal, state, and local environmental regulations must be observed.
1-Chlorobutane Preparation Products And Raw materials
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