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ISOBUTYLENE Basic information
ISOBUTYLENE Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:−140 °C
  • Boiling point:−6.9 °C(lit.)
  • Density 0.5879
  • vapor density 2 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 3278 mm Hg ( 37.7 °C)
  • refractive index 1.3811
  • Flash point:-80 °C
  • FreezingPoint -140.34℃
  • Merck 14,5141
  • BRN 773645
  • Henry's Law Constant0.20, 0.26, 0.33, and 0.41 at 30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, respectively (Leung et al., 1987:Zhang et al., 2002)
  • Stability:Stable. Highly flammable - readily forms an explosive mixture with air. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference115-11-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes F+
  • Risk Statements 12
  • Safety Statements 9-16-33
  • RIDADR UN 1055 2.1
  • WGK Germany -
  • RTECS UD0890000
  • 4.5-31
  • Autoignition Temperature869 °F
  • HazardClass 2.1
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29012330
  • ToxicityLC50 (inhalation) for mice 415 g/m3/2-h, rats 620 g/m3/4-h (quoted, RTECS, 1985).
ISOBUTYLENE Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless gas
  • Physical propertiesColorless gas with a coal gas-like odor. The odor threshold concentration is 10 ppmv Nagata and Takeuchi (1990).
  • UsesPrimarily used to produce diisobutylene, trimers, butyl rubber, and other polymers; also to produce antioxidants for foods, packaging, food supplements, and for plastics: Hatch, Pet. Refin. 39, No. 6, 207 (1960).
  • DefinitionChEBI: An alkene that is prop-1-ene substituted by a methyl group at position 2.
  • General DescriptionISOBUTYLENE is a colorless gas with a faint petroleum-like odor. For transportation ISOBUTYLENE may be stenched. ISOBUTYLENE is shipped as a liquefied gas under its own vapor pressure. Contact with the liquid can cause frostbite. ISOBUTYLENE is easily ignited. Its vapors are heavier than air and a flame can flash back to the source of leak very easily. The leak can either be a liquid or vapor leak. ISOBUTYLENE can asphyxiate by the displacement of air. Under prolonged exposure to fire or heat the containers may rupture violently and rocket. ISOBUTYLENE is used in the production of isooctane, a high octane aviation gasoline.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable.
  • Reactivity ProfileISOBUTYLENE is incompatible with oxidizers. ISOBUTYLENE polymerizes easily. ISOBUTYLENE reacts easily with numerous materials, such as alkyl halides, halogens, concentrated sulfuric acid, hypochlorous acid, aluminum chloride, carbon monoxide and hydrogen with a cobalt catalyst. Polymerization is catalyzed by aluminum chloride and boron trifluoride.
  • HazardHighly flammable, dangerous fire and explosion risk, explosive limits in air 1.8–8.8%.
  • Health HazardInhalation of moderate concentrations causes dizziness, drowsiness, and unconsciousness. Contact with eyes or skin may cause irritation; the liquid may cause frostbite.
  • Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: Containers may explode in fire. Vapor is heavier than air and may travel a long distance to a source of ignition and flash back.
  • SourceSchauer et al. (2001) measured organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds, gas-phase semi-volatile organic compounds, and particle-phase organic compounds from the residential (fireplace) combustion of pine, oak, and eucalyptus. The gas-phase emission rate of 2-methylpropene was 40.1 mg/kg of pine burned. Emission rates of 2-methylbutene were not measured during the combustion of oak and eucalyptus.
    California Phase II reformulated gasoline contained 2-methylpropene at a concentration of 170 mg/kg. Gas-phase tailpipe emission rates from gasoline-powered automobiles with and without catalytic converters were 15.6 and 427 mg/km, respectively (Schauer et al., 2002).
  • Environmental FatePhotolytic. Products identified from the photoirradiation of 2-methylpropene with nitrogen dioxide in air are 2-butanone, 2-methylpropanal, acetone, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methanol, methyl nitrate, and nitric acid (Takeuchi et al., 1983). Similarly, products identified from the reaction of 2-methylpropene with ozone included acetone, formaldehyde, methanol, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane (Tuazon et al., 1997).
    The following rate constants were reported for the reaction of 2-methylpropene and OH radicals in the atmosphere: 3.0 x 10-13 cm3/molecule?sec at 300 K (Hendry and Kenley, 1979); 5.40 x 10-11 cm3/molecule?sec (Atkinson et al., 1979); 5.14 x 10-11 at 298 K (Atkinson, 1990). Reported reaction rate constants for 2-methylpropene and ozone in the atmosphere include 2.3 x 10-19 cm3/molecule?sec (Bufalini and Altshuller, 1965); 1.17 x 10-19 cm3/molecule?sec at 300 K (Adeniji et al., 1965); 1.21 x 10-17 cm3/molecule?sec at 298 K (Atkinson, 1990).
    Chemical/Physical. Complete combustion in air yields carbon dioxide and water. Incomplete combustion yields carbon monoxide.
  • Solubility in organics(mole fraction):
    In 1-butanol: 0.131, 0.0695, and 0.0458 at 25, 30, and 70 °C, respectively; chlorobenzene: 0.234, 0.132, and 0.0796 at 25, 30, and 70 °C, respectively; octane: 0.333, 0.184, and 0.119 at 25, 30, and 70 °C, respectively (Hayduk et al., 1988).
  • Solubility in water(mole fraction):
    In 1-butanol: 0.131, 0.0695, and 0.0458 at 25, 30, and 70 °C, respectively; chlorobenzene: 0.234, 0.132, and 0.0796 at 25, 30, and 70 °C, respectively; octane: 0.333, 0.184, and 0.119 at 25, 30, and 70 °C, respectively (Hayduk et al., 1988).
  • Purification MethodsDry isobutene by passage through anhydrous CaSO4 at 0o. Purify it further by freeze-pump-thaw cycles and trap-to-trap distillation. [Beilstein 1 IV 796.]
ISOBUTYLENE Preparation Products And Raw materials
ISOBUTYLENE(115-11-7)Related Product Information
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