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Isobutyraldehyde Basic information
Isobutyraldehyde Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-65 °C (lit.)
  • Boiling point:63 °C (lit.)
  • Density 0.79 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
  • vapor density 2.5 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 66 mm Hg ( 4.4 °C)
  • refractive index n20/D 1.374(lit.)
  • Flash point:−40 °F
  • storage temp. Store below +30°C.
  • solubility water: soluble11g/100mL at 20°C(lit.)
  • form Liquid
  • color Clear
  • OdorPungent.
  • Odor Threshold0.00035ppm
  • explosive limit1.6-11.0%(V)
  • Water Solubility 75 g/L (20 ºC)
  • Sensitive Air Sensitive
  • Merck 14,5154
  • JECFA Number252
  • BRN 605330
  • Stability:Stable. Refrigerate. Highly flammable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong bases, strong acids, strong reducing agents.
  • CAS DataBase Reference78-84-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferencePropanal, 2-methyl-(78-84-2)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemIsobutyraldehyde (78-84-2)
Safety Information
Isobutyraldehyde Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionIsobutyraldehyde, also known as 2-Methylpropanal, is an organic compound belonging to the family of aldehydes, which can be found in alcoholic beverages, tea, breads, cooked pork, spearmint oil as well as fresh fruits, such as apple, banana, cherry, etc. It is manufactured by the hydroformylation of propene, usually obtained as a side-product. It can be applied as a source for producing other chemicals, including isobutyl alcohol, neopentyl glycol as well as isobutanoic acid production and used to produce amino acids such as valine and leucine. Besides, isobutyraldehyde commonly serves as an intermediate in the field of chemical industry for manufacture of pharmaceuticals (such as Vitamin B5), crop protection products, pesticides, synthetic resins, antioxidants, vulcanisation accelerators, textile auxiliaries, perfumery and flavors.
  • References
  • DescriptionIsobutyraldehyde has a characteristic odor. Synthesized via oxidation of isobutyl alcohol with potassium dichromate and concentrated sulfuric acid.
  • Chemical PropertiesIsobutyraldehyde has a characteristic sharp, pungent odor.
  • Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid with an extremely unpleasant smell
  • OccurrenceReported found in apple and currant aromas and in the essential oils from tobacco leaves and tea leaves, also in the essential oils of Pinus jeffreyi Murr. leaves, Citrus aurantium leaves, and Datura stramonium. Reported found in apple, banana, sweet and sour cherry, currants, kohlrabi, carrots, celery, peas, potato, tomato, peppermint, corn mint and spearmint oil, vinegar, wheat and rye breads, cheeses, butter, yogurt, egg, caviar, fatty fish, meats, hop oil, beer, brandy, rum, sherry, cider, whiskies, grape wines, cocoa, coffee, tea, filberts, peanuts, popcorn, oats, soybeans, honey, mushrooms, macadamia nuts, cauliflower, pear and apple brandy, rice, sukiyaki, malt, loquat, clary sage, shrimps, truffle, scallops and squid
  • UsesIsobutyraldehyde is used in the synthesisof cellulose esters, resins, and plasticizers;in the preparation of pantothenic acid andvaline; and in flavors.
  • UsesIn the synthesis of pantothenic acid, valine, leucine, cellulose esters, perfumes, flavors, plasticizers, resins, gasoline additives.
  • UsesIsobutyraldehyde is used as an intermediate in the preparation of isobutanol, methacrolein, hydroxypivaldehyde and neopentyl glycol. It is actively involved in the Cannizaro reaction. It is also used as an intermediate to prepare pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, vitamins, antioxidants, rubber accelerators, textile auxiliaries, perfumery and flavors.
  • PreparationBy oxidation of isobutyl alcohol with potassium dichromate and concentrated sulfuric acid.
  • DefinitionChEBI: A member of the class of propanals that is propanal substituted by a methyl group at position 2.
  • Aroma threshold valuesDetection: 0.4 to 43 ppb
  • General DescriptionA clear colorless liquid with a pungent odor. Flash point of -40°F. Less dense than water and insoluble in water. Hence floats on water. Vapors are heavier than air. Used to make other chemicals.
  • Air & Water ReactionsHighly flammable. Oxidizes slowly on exposure to air. Stable (less than 10% decomposition) for four hours when exposed to light and air in a closed system. Stable for two weeks when stored under nitrogen at temperatures up to 77°F. Insoluble in water.
  • Reactivity ProfileIsobutyraldehyde can react vigorously with reducing agents, with oxidizing agents, strong bases and mineral acids. Can undergo exothermic self-condensation or polymerization reactions that are often catalyzed by acid. Generates flammable and/or toxic gases in combination with azo, diazo compounds, dithiocarbamates, nitrides, and strong reducing agents. Reacts slowly when exposed to air with air to give peroxides and other products. These reactions are activated by light, catalyzed by salts of transition metals, and are autocatalytic (catalyzed by their products). The addition of stabilizers (antioxidants) retards autoxidation.
  • HazardHighly flammable, dangerous fire and explosion risk. Irritant to skin and eyes.
  • Health HazardVapor is irritating to the eyes and mucous membranes.
  • Health HazardIsobutyraldehyde is a moderate skin and eyeirritant; the effect may be slightly greaterthan that of n-butyraldehyde. An amounttotaling 500 mg in 24 hours produced severeskin irritation in rabbits; 100 mg causedmoderate eye irritation.
    The toxicity of isobutyraldehyde determinedon test animals was very low. Exposureto 8000 ppm (23,600 mg/m3) for 4 hours waslethal to rats.
    LD50 value, oral (rats): 2810 mg/kg.
  • Fire HazardBehavior in Fire: Vapors are heavier than air and may travel considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back. Fires are difficult to control due to ease of reignition.
  • Chemical ReactivityReactivity with Water No reaction; Reactivity with Common Materials: No reactions; Stability During Transport: Stable; Neutralizing Agents for Acids and Caustics: Not pertinent; Polymerization: Not pertinent; Inhibitor of Polymerization: Not pertinent.
  • CarcinogenicityIsobutyraldehyde is not mutagenic in various strains of S. typhimurium and is noncarcinogenic in rats and mice.
  • Purification MethodsDry isobutyraldehyde with CaSO4 and use it immediately after distillation under nitrogen because of the great difficulty in preventing oxidation. It can be purified through its acid bisulfite derivative. [Beilstein 1 IV 3262.]
  • Waste DisposalIsobutyraldehyde is burned in a chemicalincinerator equipped with an afterburner andscrubber.
Isobutyraldehyde Preparation Products And Raw materials
Isobutyraldehyde(78-84-2)Related Product Information
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