Fingolimod hydrochloride Chemical Properties
- Melting point:102-107°C
- storage temp. -20°C
- solubility water: soluble10mg/mL, clear
- form powder
- color white to beige
- Merck 14,4083
- CAS DataBase Reference162359-56-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
Fingolimod hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis
- Oral drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosisFingolimod hydrochloride is the first oral drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. It is successfully developed by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, and it has been approved for marketing by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The recommended dose is 0.5mg once a day for oral administration.
Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating neurological disease that can cause the patient to lose a sense of balance, appear muscle spasms and other movement disorders. The disease has been treated with injectable drugs. This kind of medication brought great inconvenience to patients.
Fingolimod is a sphingosine-l-phosphate (S1PR) receptor modulator. After phosphorylation, It is bound to s1P receptor that is on the surface of lymphocyte, which will change lymphocyte migration, and promote cells into the lymphatic tissue, and prevent lymphocytes from leaving the lymphoid tissue and get into the graft. Thereby, it will prevent these cells from infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS), which achieves the effect of immunosuppression. According to the drug's introduction, drugmaker Novartis said that this process of pharmacological effects is reversible. If medication is stopped, the level of lymphocytes in circulating system will return to normal.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Kui Ming.
- DescriptionApproved by the U.S. FDA in September 2010, fingolimod (also referred to as FTY720) is the first approved oral therapy for the relapsing-remitting form ofmultiple sclerosis (RRMS). Because of fingolimod’s structural resemblance to sphingosine, a metabolite of sphingolipids that constitutes the cell membrane of all eukaryotic cells, it was hypothesized that fingolimod may be affecting sphingolipid metabolism in cells. A series of elegant in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that fingolimod is converted to (S)-fingolimod phosphate primarily by sphingosine kinase- 2 and that (S)-fingolimod phosphate mediates multiple biological processes by binding to novel GPCR’s referred to as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. S1P receptors are divided into five subtypes, S1P1–5, which have varying tissue and cellular distribution. S1P1–3 receptors are ubiquitously expressed in the immune, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems, S1P4 is restricted to the hematopoietic system, and S1P5 is mostly localized in the white matter of CNS. S1P1–3 receptors play important roles in endothelial barrier function, maintaining vascular tone, regulating heart rate and allowing for lymphocyte egress fromsecondary lymphoid organs. The functional role of S1P4 is unknown,while the S1P5 receptor is thought to be involved in natural killer cell trafficking and oligodendrocyte function.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite Solid
- OriginatorYoshitomi Pharmaceutical Industries (now Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma) (United States)
- UsesA derivative of ISP-1 (myriocin), a fungal metabolite of the Chinese herb Iscaria sinclarii as well as a structural analogue of Sphingosine. It is a novel immune modulator that prolongs allograft transplant survival in numberour models by inhibitin
- UsesOral medicine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
- UsesFTY720 is a derivative of ISP-1 (myriocin), a fungal metabolite of the Chinese herb Iscaria sinclarii as well as a structural analogue of Sphingosine. FTY720 is a novel immune modulator that prolong s allograft transplant survival in numberour models by inhibiting lymphocyte emigration from lymphoid organs. FTY720 us reported to be phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase to FTY720-P, which has been shown to potently stimulate GTPgS binding activity in S1P-transfected CHO cells (EC50 = 210 pM, 4.9 nM, 4.3 nM, and 1 nM for S1P1, S1P3, S1P4 and S1P5, respectively).
- UsesA cell-permeable aminopropanediol immunosuppressive agent that displays lymphocyte sequestration properties.
- DefinitionChEBI: The hydrochloride salt of 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl) ethyl]-1,3-propanediol (fingolimod).
- brand nameGilenya
- Clinical UseFingolimod hydrochloride is an immunosuppressive drug developed by Novartis and approved in the U.S., Europe, and Australia in 2010 for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The structure of fingolimod derives from the naturally-occurring myriocin (ISP-1) metabolite of the fungus I. sinclairii and the aminoalcohol functionality within the drug possesses structural similarity to the sphingosine family of natural products.
- Chemical SynthesisAlthough several convenient preparations of fingolimod (FTY720)
have been reported in the literature, the route most closely resembling the process-scale
approach is described in the scheme. Friedel-Crafts acylation of commercial toluene derivative 89
with bromoacetyl chloride followed by ethoxide-mediated N-acylated aminomalonate (91) attack onto
the resulting -bromoketone 90 gave rise to ketoamide 92 in good overall yield. Next, separate hydride
reduction protocols were employed to furnish diol 93. Presumably, triethylsilyl hydride reduced the
ketone and both ethyl esters within 92 to the corresponding diacid, which then underwent lithium
aluminum hydride treatment to arrive at diol 93. Careful attention to stoichiometry was required to
avoid over reduction of amide 93, which was critical to achieve high-yielding (76%) salt formation of
fingolimod HCl (VI) through the use of 6 N ethanolic hydrochloric acid.
- Fingolimod Impurity 4 Benzene, 1-(2-iodoethyl)-4-octyl- Fingolimod-d4 2-DiMethylaMino FingoliMod FTY720-d4 Hydrochloride diethyl 2-acetamido-2-(4-octylphenethyl)malonate 2-(4-OCTYLPHENYL)ETHANOL Fingolimod Fingolimod 2-Phenethyl Analog 2-NitrodeaMino FingoliMod 2-(Acetylamino)-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)-2-oxoethyl]-propanedioic acid 1,3-diethyl ester N-(1-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-(4-octylphenyl)butan-2-yl)acetamide N-[1,1-Bis[(acetyloxy)methyl]-3-(4-octylphenyl)propyl]acetamide Ozanimod 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene Glatiramer acetate Fingolimod Palmitate Amide Fingolimod EP Impurity D
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