Pectin Chemical Properties
- Melting point:174-180 °C (decomp)
- storage temp. room temp
- solubility H2O: soluble0.02g/10 mL, clear to hazy, colorless to very faintly yellow
- form Powder
- color Yellow to Pale Brown
- Water Solubility It is soluble in water.
- Merck 14,7063
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPectin (9000-69-5)
Pectin Usage And Synthesis
- Chemical Propertiesoff-white to beige crystalline powder
- Chemical PropertiesPectin occurs as a coarse or fine, yellowish-white, odorless powder that has a mucilaginous taste.
- OccurrencePectin is found in the cell walls of all plants.
- UsesIn the preparation of jellies and similar food products: Owens et al., "Factors Influencing Gelation with Pectin" in Natural Plant Hydrocolloids, Advances in Chemistry Series (ACS, Washington, 1954) pp 10-15.
- Usespectin is used as a thickening agent in cosmetic preparations given its gelling properties. It is soothing and mildly acidic and extracted from apples or the inner portion of citrus fruit rind.
- UsesPectin is a gum that is the methylated ester of polygacturonic acid. it is obtained from citrus peels and apple pomace. the degree of meth- ylation (dm) or esterification (de) refers to the percentage of acid groups which are present as the methyl ester. pectin is divided into two main groups: high methoxy (hm) pectin, having 50% or greater esterification, and low methoxy (lm) pectin, having less than 50% esterification. these pectins gel under different conditions. the lm pectins are subdivided into low methoxy amidated pectin and low methoxy conventional pectin. see pectin, high methoxy; pectin, low methoxy; amidated pectin.
- UsesPectinic Acid is a broad group of pectic substances that contain more than a negligible proportion of methyl ester groups and all the unes- terified carboxyl groups are free. the divalent salts of pectinic acid are only slightly soluble in water and must be converted to the sodium or potassium form for dissolution.
- Production MethodsPectin is obtained from the diluted acid extract from the inner portion of the rind of citrus fruits or from apple pomace.
- brand nameAdm;Arhemapectin;Astriharina s;Betaine digestive aid;Bio hubber fuerte;Biskapect;Chloropect;Collodyne;Dexinca;Diacalm;Diaguard forte;Diareze;Diarrhosan d;Diastat;Diban diet complex 1500;Diet-trim;Donnagel pg capsule;Donnagel-mb;Donnagel-pg;Enterolyte;Estreptokectil;Estreptonetrol;Estreptoral;Estreptosirup;Fiblet;H.e.c;Kaomagma with pectin;Kaomycin;Kaoneo;Kaopectate n;Kaopectin;Kaoprompt-h;Kao-spen;Kaostaten;Kln;Medipect;Neopec;Norquinol;Noventerol;Orahesive;Pectigels;Pectrolyte;Peterpect;Pomana a;Salvacolina nn;Sorbitoxin;Streptomagma;Varihesive.
- World Health Organization (WHO)Pectin is a purified carbohydrate product isolated from the rinds of citrus fruits or green apples. Its major constituent is polygalacteronic acid, and it is almost completely digested and absorbed in the intestine. Pectin became popular as a simple remedy for diarrhoea in the early 1900s. It does not affect the frequency of stool or stool weight. Use of such products diverts attention away from more important aspects of treatment, such as rehydration, proper nutrition and in the case of cholera and dysentery, appropriate antibiotics.
- Agricultural UsesPectin is a high molecular weight polyuronide. It is
related to the carbohydrate family and is present in fruits
Pectin occurs in varying amounts in fruits and plants. It contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and on hydrolysis, yields glycosides and galachronic acid. It can form a gel when it absorbs water.
Commercially, the primary source of the commonly used pectin is lemon and lime peel; other citrus fruits l i e orange and grapefruit may also be used. Pectin is widely used in the food industry, principally in gel preparation.
Pectin is also used in making drugs, protective colloids, emulsifying agents, etc.
- Pharmaceutical Applicationspresent in multi-ingredient preparations for the management of
diarrhea, constipation, and obesity;it has also been used as an
Experimentally, pectin has been used in gel formulations for the oral sustained delivery of ambroxol.Pectin gel beads have been shown to be an effective medium for controlling the release of a drug within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.It has also been used in a colon-biodegradable pectin matrix with a pH-sensitive polymeric coating, which retards the onset of drug release, overcoming the problems of pectin solubility in the upper GI tract.Amidated pectin matrix patches have been investigated for the transdermal delivery of chloroquine,and gelling pectin formulations for the oral sustained delivery of paracetamol have been investigated in situ.Pectin-based matrices with varying degrees of esterification have been evaluated as oral controlled-release tablets. Lowmethoxy pectins were shown to have a release rate more sensitive to the calcium content of the formulation.Pectins have been used as a component in the preparation of mixed polymer microsphere systems with the intention of producing controlled drug release.
- Safety ProfileLow toxicity by subcutaneous route. When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and irritating fumes.
- SafetyPectin is used in oral pharmaceutical formulations and food
products, and is generally regarded as an essentially nontoxic and
Low toxicity by the subcutaneous route has been reported.
LD50 (mouse, SC): 6.4 g/kg
- storagePectin is a nonreactive and stable material; it should be stored in a cool, dry place.
- Purification MethodsDissolve the pectin in hot water to give a 1% solution, then cool, and make it to about 0.05M in HCl by addition of conc HCl, and precipitate it by pouring it slowly, with vigorous stirring into two volumes of 95% EtOH. After standing for several hours, the pectin is filtered through a nylon cloth, then redispersed in 95% EtOH and stood overnight. The precipitate is filtered off, washed with EtOH/Et2O, then Et2O and dried in air. [Rees & Walsh Angew Chem, Int Edn 16 214 1977, Rees Adv Carbohydr Chem 24 267 1969.]
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental paste; oral powders; topical pastes). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients. Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK.
Pectin Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Raw materialsIsopropanolActivated carbon,decolorD(+)-SucroseAluminium potassium sulfate dodecahydratePectinasePECTIC ACID
- Preparation ProductsCACAO PIGMENTguanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) MannitolReserpineTAMARIND GUMHibiscetinAcorn shell btownSpirulina blBe colourCROCINPectin digestsgalactomannan gumPeanut-skin redpressure sensitive adhesive Great Wall 204Kaoliang colour
- Pectin digests Pectin sodium PECTIN [3H] Aluminum acetylacetonate COBALT(II) ACETYLACETONATE TERT-BUTYL ISOCYANIDE COBALT ETHYLENE DIAMINE CHLORIDE Ferric acetylacetonate Ethyl isocyanoacetate METHYL ISOCYANOACETATE Tris(2,4-pentanedionato)chroMiuM(III) TRIS(2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-3,5-HEPTANEDIONATO)EUROPIUM(III) N-BUTYLISOCYANIDE DICHLORO(ETHYLENEDIAMINE)PLATINUM(II) 2,4-PENTANEDIONE, SILVER DERIVATIVE TRIS(2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-3,5-HEPTANEDIONATO)DYSPROSIUM(III) Tosylmethyl isocyanide Cupric acetylacetonate
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