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Tin tetrachloride

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Tin tetrachloride Basic information
Tin tetrachloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:-33 °C (lit.)
  • Boiling point:114 °C (lit.)
  • Density 2.226 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
  • vapor density 9 (vs air)
  • vapor pressure 10 mm Hg ( 10 °C)
  • refractive index 1.512
  • Flash point:34 °F
  • storage temp. Store at RT.
  • solubility Miscible with alcohol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, acetone, carbon terachloride, gasoline and carbon disulfide.
  • form Solution
  • Specific Gravity2.226
  • color Colorless
  • PH0.2 (60g/l, H2O, 20℃)Hydrolysis
  • Water Solubility reacts
  • Sensitive Air Sensitive
  • Hydrolytic Sensitivity8: reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
  • Merck 14,8774
  • Stability:Stability Stable, but may decompose upon exposure to moist air or water. Incompatible with strong bases, alcohols.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7646-78-8(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceTin tetrachloride(7646-78-8)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemStannane, tetrachloro- (7646-78-8)
Safety Information
MSDS
Tin tetrachloride Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical PropertiesTin tetrachloride is a colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Tin tetrachloride is soluble in cold water,alcohol,carbon disulfide, and oil of turpentine, that is decomposed by hot water to form hydrochloric acid with the evolution of heat. Tin tetrachloride is corrosive to metals and tissue.Used as a conductive coating and a sugar bleach,and in drugs, ceramics, soaps,and blue printing.
  • UsesTin(IV) chloride is a mordant for dying fabrics; a stabilizer for perfume in soap; used in weighting silk; in ceramic coatings; in manufacturing blue print papers; and to produce fuchsin. Also, tin(IV) chloride is used in preparing many organotin compounds.
  • PreparationTin(IV) chloride is prepared by reacting tin or tin(II) chloride with chlorine:
    Sn + 2Cl2 → SnCl4
    SnCl2 + Cl2 → SnCl4
  • DescriptionTin (IV) chloride appears as white crystals with a strong pungent chlorine odour. On heating, tin (IV) chloride decomposition emits acrid fumes. At room temperature, it is colourless and releases fumes on contact with air, giving a stinging odour. Stannic chloride was used as a chemical weapon during World War I. It is also used in the glass container industry for making an external coating that toughens the glass. Stannic chloride is used in chemical reactions with fuming (90%) nitric acid for the selective nitration of activated aromatic rings in the presence of unactivated ones. Tin (IV) chloride reacts violently with water or moist air to produce corrosive hydrogen chloride. Tin (IV) chloride reacts with turpentine, alcohols, and amines, causing fire and explosion hazard. It attacks many metals, some forms of plastic, rubber, and coatings.
  • Chemical PropertiesColorless, fuming, caustic liquid, that water converts into a crystalline solid, SnCl4?5H2O.Keep well stoppered. Soluble in cold water, alcohol, carbon disulfide; decomposed by hot water.
  • Chemical PropertiesTin tetrachloride is a colorless fuming liquid.
  • Chemical PropertiesStannic chloride is a white to yellow powder with a faint odor of HCl.
  • Physical propertiesColorless fuming liquid; corrosive; density 2.234 g/mL; freezes at -33°C; boils at 114.15°C; critical temperature 318.75°C; critical pressure 37.98 atm; critical volume 351 cm3/mol; soluble in cold water, evolving heat; decomposed by hot water; soluble in alcohol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, acetone and kerosene
    The pentahydrate is a yellowish-white crystalline solid or small, fused lumps; faint odor of HCl; density 2.04 g/cm3; decmposes at 56°C; very soluble in water; soluble in ethanol.
  • UsesElectroconductive and electroluminescent coatings, mordant in dyeing textiles, perfume stabilization, manufacture of fuchsin, color lakes, ceramic coatings, bleaching agent for sugar, stabilizer for certain resins, manufacture of blueprint and other sensitized papers, other tin salts, bacteria and fungi control in soaps
  • PreparationTin(II) chloride is prepared by dissolving tin in hydrochloric acid followed by evaporation of the solution and crystallization.
  • DefinitionOften sold in the form of the double salt with sodium chloride: Na2SnCl6?H2O.
  • Air & Water ReactionsFumes in moist air. Reacts with water to form Hydrochloric Acid in dense white fumes [Merck 11th ed. 1989].
  • Reactivity ProfileAcidic salts, such as STANNIC CHLORIDE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydrogen ions and have pH's of less than 7.0. They react as acids to neutralize bases. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of inorganic acids, inorganic oxoacids, and carboxylic acid. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible. Many of these compounds catalyze organic reactions (ethylene oxide polymerization). Combination of the chloride with turpentine is strongly exothermic, and may lead to ignition, [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 7, 446].
  • HazardEvolves heat on contact with moisture. Corrosive liquid
  • Health HazardCORROSIVE and/or TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors, dusts or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire will produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Reaction with water may generate much heat that will increase the concentration of fumes in the air. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
  • Fire HazardEXCEPT FOR ACETIC ANHYDRIDE (UN1715), THAT IS FLAMMABLE, some of these materials may burn, but none ignite readily. May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Substance will react with water (some violently), releasing corrosive and/or toxic gases and runoff. Flammable/toxic gases may accumulate in confined areas (basement, tanks, hopper/tank cars, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated or if contaminated with water. Substance may be transported in a molten form.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by intraperitoneal route. Moderately toxic by inhalation. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Combustible by chemical reaction. Upon contact with moisture, considerable heat is generated. Violent reaction with K, Na, turpentine, ethylene oxide, alkyl nitrates. Dangerous; hydrochloric acid is liberated on contact with moisture or heat. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
  • Potential ExposureTin tetrachloride is used in the production of blueprints and electroconductive readings, as a bleaching agent for sugar and resin stabilizer.
  • ShippingUN2440 Stannic chloride, pentahydrate, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
  • Purification MethodsSnCl4 fumes in moist air due to formation of a hydrate. Fractionate it in a ground glass still and store it in the absence of air. Possible impurities are SO2 and HCl [Baudler in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I p 729 1963]. It forms a solid pentahydrate [10026-06-9] which smells of HCl and is obtained when the anhydrous salt is dissolved in a small volume of H2O. Also reflux it with clean mercury or P2O5 for several hours, then distil it under (reduced) N2 pressure into a receiver containing P2O5. Finally redistil it. Alternatively, distil it from Sn metal under vacuum in an all-glass system and seal off in large ampoules. SnCl4 is available commercially as 1M solutions in CH2Cl2 or hexane. HARMFUL VAPOURS.
  • IncompatibilitiesSlowly forms hydrochloric acid in cold water; fast reaction in hot water and steam. Incompatible with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, water, turpentine, potassium, sodium, ethylene oxide; nitrates, alcohols, amines, chlorine, strong acids; strong bases. Attacks metals, rubbers and some plastics in the resence of moisture.
  • Waste DisposalSnCl4: Pour onto sodium bicarbonate; spray with ammonium hydroxide while adding crushed ice; when reaction subsides, flush down drain.
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