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Titanium tetrachloride

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Titanium tetrachloride Basic information
Titanium tetrachloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:−25 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:135-136 °C(lit.)
  • Density 1.73 g/mL at 20 °C(lit.)
  • vapor pressure 50 mm Hg ( 55 °C)
  • refractive index 1.61
  • Flash point:46 °F
  • storage temp. Flammables area
  • solubility H2O: soluble
  • form Solution
  • color Light yellow to dark brown
  • Specific Gravity1.726
  • Water Solubility reacts
  • Sensitive Moisture Sensitive
  • Hydrolytic Sensitivity8: reacts rapidly with moisture, water, protic solvents
  • Merck 14,9478
  • Stability:Stable. Reacts with water. Incompatible with moisture, ammonia, amines, alcohols, potassium and other chemically active metals.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7550-45-0(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceTitanium tetrachloride(7550-45-0)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemTitanium tetrachloride (7550-45-0)
Safety Information
Titanium tetrachloride Usage And Synthesis
  • Physical PropertiesColorless or yellow liquid; penetrating acid odor; absorbs moisture from air; produces dense white fumes; density 1.73 g/mL; freezes at –25°C; boils at 136.5°C; critical temperature 464.8°C; critical pressure 46.6 atm; critical volume 339 cm3/mol; reacts with water forming TiO2 and HCl; soluble in ethanol
  • UsesTitanium tetrachloride is used to prepare titanium dioxide and most other titanium compounds. It also is used in making iridescent glass; arificial pearls; and smoke screens. The compound is a polymerization catalyst.
  • PreparationTitanium tetrachloride is prepared by heating titanium dioxide or the ores ilmenite or rutile with carbon to red heat in a stream of chlorine. When ilmetite is used, ferric chloride also is produced. Titanium tetrachloride is separated from ferric chloride and other impurities by fractionation.
  • Chemical PropertiesDescription: Titanium tetrachloride is a noncombustible, colorless to light yellow liquid that fumes in air. Penetrating acrid odor.
  • Chemical PropertiesColorless liquid. Fumes strongly when exposed to moist air, forming a dense and persistent white cloud. Soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid; soluble in water with evolution of heat; concentrated aqueous solutions are stable and corrosive; dilute solutions precipitate insoluble basic chlorides.
  • UsesActivates pyrrolidines for improved conversion, via a modified Bouveault reaction, to the corresponding α,α-dimethylamines.1
  • Usesmanufacture of titanium compounds, iridescent glass and artificial pearls. Formerly used with potassium bitartrate as a mordant in textile industry, and with dyewoods in dyeing leather; also as smoke-producing screen with ammonia.
  • UsesTitanium (IV) tetrachloride (TiCl4) produces a dense white smoke-like vapor when exposed to moist air. It is used as smoke screens and for skywriting, as well in theatrical productions where fog or smoke is required for the scene.
  • Production MethodsTiCl4 is used in TiO2 production, the manufacture of artificial pearls and iridescent glass, and, by the military, to create smoke screens.
  • General DescriptionA colorless fuming liquid with a pungent odor. Corrosive to metals and tissue. Very toxic by inhalation.
  • Reactivity ProfileTitanium tetrachloride acts as an acid in aqueous solution. During the reduction of Titanium tetrachloride to titanium metal with potassium, an explosion occurred. The system had been heated to 90°C [Walter and Mandell 1967]. Addition directly to tetrahydrofuran caused a violent exothermic reaction [Inorg. Syn., 1982, 21, 135]. Ethylene can polymerize at low pressure if catalyzed by titanium halides. (Sundaram, K. M, M. M. Shreehan, E. F. Olszewski. thylene. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2001.)
  • HazardToxic by inhalation, strong irritant to skin and tissue.
  • Health HazardTitanium tetrachloride is a highly corrosive, acute irritant to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes and the respiratory tract. It is capable of causing death or permanent injury due to exposures encountered in normal use. Even short contact may lead to eye inflammation which may result in corneal opacities.
  • Fire HazardMaterial will react with water to produce hydrochloric acid. Titanium tetrachloride may ignite other combustible materials (e.g., wood, oil, etc.). Flammable, poisonous gases may accumulate in tanks and hopper cars. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Reacts strongly with water to release hydrochloric acid and heat. Avoid water, moist air. Stable in concentrated aqueous solutions. Avoid contact with moisture; the chemical absorbs moisture from air and evolves dense white fumes.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by inhalation. A corrosive irritant to skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of Cl-. See also TITANIUM COMPOUNDS.
  • Potential ExposureUsed in the manufacture of titanium salts; mordant dye; titanium pigments; and used as a chemical intermediate for titanium metal; titanium dioxide; as an agent in smoke screens; polymerization catalyst; and iridescent agent in glass and pearl manufacturing.
  • CarcinogenicityRats exposed to 10 mg TiCl4/m3 for 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 2 years developed rhinitis, tracheitis, hyperplasia, foamy dust cell accumulation, and alveolar bronchiolization. In addition, 5/150 animals developed squamous cell carcinoma, compared to 0/156 in the controls. Two of the squamous cell carcinomas were described as cystic keratinizing lesions, whose relevance to humans was questioned by the authors. However, the remaining three squamous cell tumors were described as microscopic, well-differentiated carcinomas. Therefore, TiCl4 may be regarded as potentially carcinogenic in the rat.
  • ShippingUN1838 Titanium tetrachloride, Hazard class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poison Inhalation Hazard, 8-Corrosive material, Inhalation Hazard Zone B.
  • Purification MethodsReflux it with mercury or a small amount of pure copper turnings to remove the last traces of colour [due to FeCl3 and VCl4], then distil it under N2 in an all-glass system, taking precautions to exclude moisture. Clabaugh et al. [J Res Nat Bur Stand 55 261 1955] removed organic material by adding aluminium chloride hexahydrate as a slurry with an equal amount of water (the slurry being ca one-fiftieth the weight of TiCl4), refluxed it for 2-6hours while bubbling in chlorine, the excess of which is subsequently removed by passing a stream of clean dry air. The TiCl4 is then distilled, refluxed with copper and again distilled, taking precautions to exclude moisture. Volatile impurities are then removed using a technique of freezing, pumping and melting. The titanium tetrachloride 2-tetrahydrofuran complex [Beilstein 17/1 V 33.] M 333.9, has m 126-128o and is easier to handle than TiCl4 [Abrahamson et al. Organometallics 3 1379 1984]. [Baxter & Fertig J Am Chem Soc 45 1228 1923, Baxter & Butler J Am Chem Soc 48 3117 1926.] HARMFUL VAPOURS.
  • IncompatibilitiesViolent reaction with water or steam, releasing heat and hydrogen chloride fumes. Contact with moist air releases hydrogen chloride. Attacks many metals in presence of moisture.
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