Basic information description Chemical Properties side effects Uses Synthesis Safety Related Supplier
Phenothiazine Chemical Properties
- Melting point:184 °C
- Boiling point:371 °C(lit.)
- Density 1.362
- vapor pressure 0.0000647 Pa (20 °C)
- refractive index 1.6353
- Flash point:202°C
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- solubility 0.127mg/l
- pkapKa 2.52 (Uncertain)
- form Prills or Beads
- color Yellow
- PH6 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)(aqueous suspension)
- Water Solubility 2 mg/L (25 ºC)
- Sensitive Light Sensitive
- Merck 14,7252
- BRN 143237
- Stability:Stable. Combustible. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids. May discolour upon exposure to light.
- CAS DataBase Reference92-84-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferencePhenothiazine(92-84-2)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPhenothiazine (92-84-2)
- Hazard Codes Xi,N,Xn
- Risk Statements 36/37/38-43-51/53-36/38-40-20/21/22-52/53-48/22-22
- Safety Statements 26-36-61-36/37/39-29-22-36/37
- WGK Germany 1
- RTECS SN5075000
- F 8-23
- Autoignition Temperature470 °C
- TSCA Yes
- HS Code 29343090
- Hazardous Substances Data92-84-2(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in Rabbit: > 2000 mg/kg
Phenothiazine Usage And Synthesis
- descriptionPhenothiazine is a class of agents exhibiting antiemetic, antipsychotic, antihistaminic, and anticholinergic activities. Phenothiazines antagonize the dopamine D2-receptor in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the brain, potentially preventing chemotherapy-induced emesis. In addition, these agents have peripherally or centrally antagonistic activity against alpha adrenergic, serotonergic, histaminic, and muscarinic receptors.
Phenothiazines are used to treat serious mental and emotional disorders, including schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Some are used also to control agitation in certain patients, severe nausea and vomiting, severe hiccups, and moderate to severe pain in some hospitalized patients. Chlorpromazine is used also in the treatment of certain types of porphyria, and with other medicines in the treatment of tetanus. Phenothiazines may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.
- Chemical PropertiesIt is clean gray-green powder with the melting point of 185.5 ℃, boiling point of 371 ℃, 290 ℃ (5.33kPa). It is insoluble in petroleum ether, chloroform and water, and soluble in ether and hot acetic acid. It will be oxidized upon exposure to light in the air.
- side effectsFor more than a decade, phenothiazine drugs have been used to treat a variety of disorders and have proved particularly effective in the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical experience indicates that initial extremely high dosages are necessary to effect improvement of patients with schizophrenic illnesses.
During 1964, several sequelae have been reported following prolonged high dosage of these drugs. These recent reports refer to side effects which are apparently permanent, in contrast to earlier communications of transient deleterious effects. For example, it has been known for several years that extrapyramidal disorders occur frequently in patients taking phenothiazines; however, a reduction in dosage or cessation of medication appeared to produce a return to the normal state.
Phenothiazines may cause unwanted, unattractive, and uncontrolled face or body movements that may not go away when you stop taking the medicine. They may also cause other serious unwanted effects. You and your doctor should talk about the good this medicine will do as well as the risks of using it. Also, your doctor should look for early signs of these effects at regular visits. Your doctor may be able to stop or decrease some unwanted effects, if they do occur, by changing your dose or by making other changes in your treatment.
These medicines are available only with your doctor's prescription.
Levoprome(R) (methotrimeprazine) is no longer available in the United States. At the end of May 1998, Immunex Corporation stopped marketing it.
Once a medicine has been approved for marketing for a certain use, experience may show that it also is useful for other medical problems. Although these uses are not included in product labeling, phenothiazines are used in certain patients with the following medical conditions:
- Chronic neurogenic pain (certain continuing pain conditions)
- Huntington's chorea (hereditary movement disorder)
- Migraine headaches
- Phenothiazine is a relatively widely used anthelmintic reagent with excellent efficacy in treating the Haemonchus contortus of cattle, horse and sheep, nodular worm, Bunostomum and Plasmodium chabaudi.
- Phenothiazine is the intermediates of fine chemicals such as dyes and drugs with itself being a auxiliary material for synthetic material (the anti-polymerization reagent for production of vinylon), fruit pesticides and veterinary anthelmintic.
- It is mainly used as the polymerization inhibitor for acrylic acid, acrylic esters, and methacrylic aicd as well as ester monomer.
- Synthesis22 g of diphenylamine, 8.2 g of sulfur, and 3.2 gms. of anhydrous aluminum chloride are melted together. The reaction sets 140-150° C with the rapid evolution of hydrogen sulfide; by lowerg the temperature, a few degrees the reaction can be slackened. Wen the reaction has moderated, the temperature is raised to 160° C for a time. The melt, when cool, is ground up and extracted, first with water and then with dilute alcohol. The residue consists of almost pure phenothiazine. It can be recrystallised from alcohol. Yield 93%, yellowish leaflets; m.p. 180° C.
Systematic organic chemistry, by W. M. Cumming, 325-326, 1937.
- Chemical PropertiesPhenothiazine is a greenish-yellow to greenish-gray crystalline substance. Slight odor and taste.
- Chemical Propertiesyellow or pale green powder
- UsesA key component of antipsychotic and antihistaminic drugs.
- UsesEmployed in the preparation of carbazoles and piperazines,1 and charge-transfer semiconducting complexes.2
- UsesA rigid, tricyclic thiazine useful as an electron donor.
- UsesInsecticide; manufacture of pharmaceuticals.
- DefinitionChEBI: The 10H-tautomer of phenothiazine.
- brand nameNemazine (Parke-Davis).
- Synthesis Reference(s)Synthesis, p. 506, 1974 DOI: 10.1055/s-1974-23359
- General DescriptionLight green to steel-blue powder. Acquires a greenish-brown tint under exposure to sunlight.
- Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfilePhenothiazine is slowly decomposed by sunlight. . Organosulfides are incompatible with acids, diazo and azo compounds, halocarbons, isocyanates, aldehydes, alkali metals, nitrides, hydrides, and other strong reducing agents. Reactions with these materials generate heat and in many cases hydrogen gas. Many of these compounds may liberate hydrogen sulfide upon decomposition or reaction with an acid.
- Fire HazardFlash point data for Phenothiazine are not available, but Phenothiazine is probably combustible.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic to humans by ingestion. Experimental reproductive effects. An insecticide. Large doses, i.e., heavy exposure, may cause hemolytic anemia and toxic degeneration of the liver. Can cause skin irritation and photosensitization. Dangerous; when heated to decomposition or on contact with acid or acid fumes it emits hghly toxic fumes of SOx and NOx.
- Potential ExposurePhenothiazine is used as an insecticide; as a base for the manufacture of tranquilizers; as anthelmintic in medicine and veterinary medicine; it is used widely as an intermediate in pharmaceutical manufacture; polymerization inhibitor, antioxidant.
- ShippingUN3077 Environmentally hazardous substances, solid, n.o.s., Hazard class: 9; Labels: 9-Miscellaneous hazardous material, Technical Name Required
- Purification MethodsCrystallise it from *benzene, toluene, hexane or Me2CO (charcoal) after boiling for 10minutes under reflux. Filter the crystals off and dry them in an oven at 100o, then in a vacuum desiccator over paraffin chips. Also recrystallise it twice from water and dry it in an oven at 100o for 8-10hours. It sublimes at 130o/1mm and has UV with at 253nm in heptane. [Beilstein
- IncompatibilitiesOrganosulfides are incompatible with strong acids and acid fumes; elevated temperatures; sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides can be produced. Contact with strong reducing agents such as hydrides; azo and diazo compounds, halocarbons, isocyanates can generate heat and may form explosive hydrogen gas
- Waste DisposalDissolve in combustible solvent and spray into incinerator equipped with afterburner and scrubber. In accordance with 40CFR165, follow recommendations for the disposal of pesticides and pesticide containers. Must be disposed properly by following package label directions or by contacting your local or federal environmental control agency, or by contacting your regional EPA office.
Phenothiazine Preparation Products And Raw materials
- 2-TRIFLUROMETHYL PHENOTHIAZINE cyano-3((hydroxy-4piperidyl-1)-3propyl)-10phenothiazin PHENOTHIAZINE SOLUTION 100UG/ML IN TOLUENE 1ML 2-Methoxy-10H-phenothiazine,Phenothiazine, 2-methoxy- 2-Acetylphenothiazine 3-methoxy-10H-phenothiazine 3,7-dinitrophenothiazine 5-oxide 2-Chlorophenothiazine PHENOTHIAZINE-5-OXIDE Promethazine hydrochloride 2-(Trifluoromethyl)phenothiazine FLUPHENAZINE N-MUSTARD DIHYDROCHLORIDE Ethopropazine Hydrochloride Chlorpromazine hydrochloride PERPHENAZINE THIORIDAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE FLUPHENAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AKOS 93807
- Company Name:Wuxi FuAn Chemical Factory Gold
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- Company Name:Shanghai Xianer Chemical Technology Co., Ltd. Gold
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- Products Intro:Product Name:Phenothiazine
- Company Name:Shanghai Kangtuo Chemical Co., Ltd. Gold
- Products Intro:CAS:92-84-2
- Company Name:Yangzhou modier Electronic Materials Co., Ltd Gold
- Products Intro:Product Name:phenothiazine