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Ammonium thioglycolate

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Ammonium thioglycolate Basic information
Ammonium thioglycolate Chemical Properties
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes T
  • Risk Statements 25-43
  • Safety Statements 36/37-45-37-24
  • RIDADR 2810
  • WGK Germany 1
  • RTECS AI7525000
  • HazardClass 6.1(b)
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29309090
  • Hazardous Substances Data5421-46-5(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • ToxicityLD50 ipr-rat: 165 mg/kg JPETAB 97,349,49
MSDS
Ammonium thioglycolate Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionAmmonium thioglycolate, also known as perm salt, is the chemical compound with the formula HSCH2CO2NH4. Being the salt of a weak acid and weak base, ammonium thioglycolic acid exists in solution as an equilibrium mixture of the salt itself as well as the free carboxylic acid thioglycolic acid (HSCH2CO2H) and ammonia : HSCH2COO- + NH4+ ? HSCH2COOH + NH3.
  • Chemical PropertiesClear colorless solution with characteristic odor
  • Usesacts as a reducing agent in permanent-waving formulations for hair treatment and in shrink-resistant treatment of wool.
  • UsesAmmonium thioglycolate is contained in permanent waves solutions and causes contact dermatitis in hairdressers.
  • UsesSolutions of various strengths are used for hair waving and for hair removal.
  • General DescriptionColorless to faint pink liquid with a repulsive, skunk-like odor.
  • Air & Water ReactionsWater soluble.
  • Reactivity ProfileAmmonium thioglycolate may be sensitive to heat. Ammonium thioglycolate is incompatible with acids.
  • Fire HazardFlash point data for Ammonium thioglycolate are not available. Ammonium thioglycolate is combustible.
  • Contact allergensThis substance is contained in “basic” permanent waves solutions and causes contact dermatitis in hairdressers.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. An allergen; can cause contact dermatitis. Emits hydrogen sulfide. See also SULFIDES. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic NOx, SOx, and NH3.
  • Chemical concepts related to permsWhen discussing the chemistry of perms, one should consider two chemical facts. First is the thiol-disulfide equilibrium:
    RSH + R'SSR' ? R'SH + RSSR'
    where R and R' are organic substituents such as methyl (-CH3), ethyl (-C2H5), or -CH2COO-.
    The thiol-disulfide exchange reaction is accelerated by bases such as ammonia, because the base generates some thiolate anion (RS- ), which attacks the disulfide. Thus the ammonia plays multiple roles (and more, see below) in this application.
    The second chemical fact is that polar molecules are less volatile than nonpolar ones. So the glycolate substituent makes the thiol nonvolatile and hence non-odorous. An added advantage is that the glycolate confers some solubility in water. One could almost certainly use HSCH3 and ammonia to give a perm, but there would be serious olfactory consequences.
  • The actual chemistry of permsA solution containing ammonium thioglycolate contains a lot of free ammonia, which swells hair, rendering it permeable. The thioglycolic acid in the perm solution reduces the disulfide cystine bonds in the cortex of the hair. In a sense, the thioglycolate removes crosslinks. After washing, the hair is treated with a mild solution of hydrogen peroxide, which oxidizes the cysteines back to cystine. These new chemical bonds impart the structural rigidity necessary for a successful perm. The rigidification process is akin to the vulcanization of rubber, where commonly polysulfide linkages are used to crosslink the polymer chains. However, not as many disulfide bonds are reformed as there were before the permanent. As a result, the hair is weaker than before the permanent was applied and repeated applications over the same spot may eventually cause strand breakage.
Ammonium thioglycolate Preparation Products And Raw materials
Ammonium thioglycolate (5421-46-5)Related Product Information
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