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Lead (II) Chloride

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Lead (II) Chloride Basic information
Lead (II) Chloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:501 °C(lit.)
  • Boiling point:950 °C(lit.)
  • Density 5.85 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
  • vapor pressure 1 mm Hg ( 547 °C)
  • Flash point:951°C
  • storage temp. Store below +30°C.
  • solubility aliphatic hydrocarbons: slightly soluble(lit.)
  • form powder
  • color White to off-white
  • Specific Gravity5.85
  • Water Solubility Soluble in hot water, alkali hydroxides and NH<sub>4</sub>Cl solution. Insoluble in cold water and alcohol.
  • Hydrolytic Sensitivity0: forms stable aqueous solutions
  • Merck 14,5404
  • Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)pKsp: 4.77
  • Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, strong acids.
  • CAS DataBase Reference7758-95-4(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • NIST Chemistry ReferenceLead dichloride(7758-95-4)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemLead(II) chloride (7758-95-4)
Safety Information
MSDS
Lead (II) Chloride Usage And Synthesis
  • UsesLead (II) chloride is also known as lead chloride, lead dichloride, and plumbous chloride. Lead chloride is one of the most important lead-based reagents. It occurs naturally in the form of the mineral cotunnite. The solubility of lead chloride in water is low. Lead (II) chloride is the main precursor for organometallic derivatives of lead. Lead chloride has extensive applications in industries. Lead chloride is an intermediate in refining bismuth (Bi) ore. The ore containing Bi, Pb, and Zn is first treated with molten caustic soda to remove traces of acidic elements such as arsenic and tellurium. The molten lead chloride is used in the synthesis of lead titanate (PbTiO3) and barium PbTiO3. It is used in organometallic synthesis to make metallocenes, known as plumbocenes. Lead chloride is used in production of infrared transmitting glass and in production of ornamental glass called aurene glass. This stained glass has an iridescent surface formed by spraying with lead chloride and reheating under controlled conditions. Stannous chloride (SnCl2) is used for the same purpose.
  • Chemical Propertieswhite crystals or powder.Insoluble in cold water; soluble in hot water.
  • Chemical PropertiesLead chloride is a white crystalline powder
  • Physical propertiesWhite orthorhombic crystals; refractive index 2.199; density 5.85 g/cm3; melts at 501°C; vaporizes at 950°C; partially soluble in cold water (6.73 g/L at 0°C and 9.9 g/L at 20°C); KSP 1.17x10-5 at 25°C; moderately soluble in boiling water (33.4 g/L at 100°C); slightly soluble in dilute HCl and ammonia; insoluble in alcohol.
  • OccurrenceLead dichloride occurs in nature as the mineral cotunnite. The compound is used in making many basic chlorides, such as Pattison’s lead white, Turner’s Patent Yellow, and Verona Yellow, used as pigments. Also, it is used as a flux for galvanizing steel; as a flame retardant in nylon wire coatings; as a cathode for seawater batteries; to remove H2S and ozone from effluent gases; as a sterilization indicator; as a polymerization catalyst for alphaolefins; and as a co-catalyst in manufacturing acrylonitrile.
  • UsesLead (II) chloride (PbCl2) is commonly known as the mineral cotunnite.
  • Uses
    Industry
    Application
    Role/benefit
    Chemical manufacture
    Manufacture of other lead compounds
    Source of lead
    Glass
    Infrared transmitting glass
    Additive
    Ornamental glass
    Sprayed to make the glass have an iridescent surface
    Ceramics
    Barium lead titanate ceramics
    Raw material
    Paint
    White pigment
    Ingredient/has natural white color
    Pigment
    Pattison's white lead, verona yellow, turner's patent yellow and lead oxychloride
    Raw material
    Others
    Welding
    Fluxing agent
    Wire coatings
    Flame retardant
    Magnesium-lead dichloride seawater batteries
    Cathode material
    Asbestos clutch or brake linings
    Additive
     
  • UsesLead dichloride occurs in nature as the mineral cotunnite. The compound is used in making many basic chlorides, such as Pattison’s lead white, Turner’s Patent Yellow, and Verona Yellow, used as pigments. Also, it is used as a flux for galvanizing steel; as a flame retardant in nylon wire coatings; as a cathode for seawater batteries; to remove H2S and ozone from effluent gases; as a sterilization indicator; as a polymerization catalyst for alphaolefins; and as a co-catalyst in manufacturing acrylonitrile.
  • DefinitionChEBI: An inorganic chloride consisting of two chlorine atoms covalently bound to a central lead atom.
  • PreparationLead dichloride is precipitated by adding hydrochloric acid or any chloride salt solution to a cold solution of lead nitrate or other lead(II) salt:
    Pb2+ + 2Clˉ → PbCl2
    Alternatively, it is prepared by treating lead monoxide or basic lead carbonate with hydrochloric acid and allowing the precipitate to settle.
    .
  • Reactivity ProfileLead dichloride is a weak reducing agent. Interaction of Lead dichloride and calcium is explosive on warming, [Mellor, 1941, Vol. 3, 369].
  • HazardToxic effects from ingestion may vary from low to moderate. The oral lethal dose in guinea pigs is documented as 1,500 mg/kg. (Lewis (Sr.), R. J. 1996. Sax’s Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 9th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold).
  • Health HazardDUST AND FUMES. POISONOUS IF INHALED. SOLID: If swallowed, may cause metallic taste, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Fire HazardNot flammable. POISONOUS METAL FUMES MAY BE PRODUCED IN FIRE. Toxic metal fumes. Can emit toxic metal fumes.
  • Potential ExposureUsed to make lead salts; lead chromate pigments; as an analytical reagent for making other chemicals; making printed circuit boards; as a solder and flux.
  • ShippingUN2291 Lead compounds, soluble n.o.s., Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials, Technical Name Required
  • Purification MethodsCrystallise it from distilled water at 100o (33mL/g) after filtering through sintered-glass and adding a few drops of HCl, by cooling. After three crystallisations the solid is dried under vacuum or under anhydrous HCl vapour by heating slowly to 400o. The solubility in H2O is 0.07% at ~10o, and 0.43% at ~ 100o.
  • IncompatibilitiesA reducing agent. Violent reaction with oxidizers (chlorates, nitrates, peroxides, permanganates, perchlorates, chlorine, bromine, fluorine, etc.); contact may cause fires or explosions. Keep away from alkaline materials, strong bases, strong acids, oxoacids, epoxides, and chemically active metals. Explosive with calcium 1 warming
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