LEAD ACETATE Chemical Properties
- Melting point:75 °C (dec.)(lit.)
- Boiling point:decomposes at >280℃ [KIR78]
- Density 3.3 g/cm3
- storage temp. 2-8°C
- form Liquid
- color Clear colorless
- Water Solubility g/100g H2O: 19.7 (0°C), 55.2 (25°C); equilibrium solid phase, Pb(CH3COO)2 ·3H2O [KRU93]; g/100mL H2O: 44.3 (20°C), 221 (50°C) [KIR78]
- Merck 14,5397
- Solubility Product Constant (Ksp)pKsp: 2.75
- CAS DataBase Reference301-04-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemLead(II) acetate (301-04-2)
LEAD ACETATE Usage And Synthesis
- Physical PropertiesThe anhydrous salt is a white crystalline solid; very sweet taste; density 3.25 g/cm3 at 20°C; melts at 280°C; very soluble in cold water (44.39g/100g at 20°C); solubility is much greater in hot water (221g/100g at 50°C; also soluble in alcohols.
The trihydrate is a colorless monoclinic crystal or white granule or powder; refractive index 1.567 (along the beta axis); faint vinegar odor; intense sweet taste and then metallic after-taste; slowly effloresces; density 2.55 g/cm3; melts at 75°C upon rapid heating; loses some of its water of crystallization on heating which dissolves in it; decomposes at 200°C; highly soluble in water (45.61g/100g at 15°C and 200g/100g at 100°C); insoluble in alcohol.
The decahydrate is white rhombic crystal; density 1.69 g/cm3; melts at 22°C; soluble in water but insoluble in alcohol.
- PreparationLead acetate is prepared by dissolving lead monoxide in strong acetic acid:
PbO + 2CH3COOH → Pb(C2H4O2)2 + H2O
The trihydrate is obtained by dissolving lead monoxide in hot dilute acetic acid solution. Upon cooling, large crystals separate out.
- ReactionsExposure to carbon dioxide yields basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3•Pb(OH)2, the composition of which may vary with reaction conditions.
Reactions with sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and hydriodic acid yield lead sulfate PbSO4, lead chloride PbCl2, and lead iodide PbI2, respectively.
Reaction with hydrogen sulfide forms black precipitate of lead sulfide, PbS. A paper soaked with lead acetate solution turns black on exposure to H2S, a test often used to detect sulfide.
- ToxicityModerately toxic by intraperitoneal route and possibly by oral route.
LD50 intraperitoneal (mouse):400 mg/kg
- DescriptionLead acetate is stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. Lead acetate is incompatible with bromates, phenol, chloral hydrate, sulphides, hydrogen peroxide, resorcinol, salicylic acid, sulphites, vegetable infusions, alkalis, tannin, phosphates, citrates, chlorides, carbonates, tartrates, and acids. Lead (II) acetate, as well as white lead, has been used in cosmetics throughout history, though this practice has ceased in Western countries. It is still used in men’s hair colouring. Lead (II) acetate paper is used to detect the poisonous gas hydrogen sulphide. The gas reacts with lead (II) acetate on the moistened test paper to form a grey precipitate of lead (II) sulphide.
- Chemical PropertiesLead acetate is a white, flaky crystalline substance with a slight odor of acetic acid. Commercial grades may be powdered granules, or brown or gray lumps. Diacetate: Powder.
- Chemical PropertiesLead (II) acetate (Pb (CH3COO)2), also known as lead acetate, lead diacetate, plumbous acetate, sugar of lead, lead sugar, salt of Saturn, and Goulard's powder, is a white crystalline chemical compound with a sweetish taste. It is made by treating lead(II) oxide with acetic acid. Like other lead compounds, it is toxic. Lead acetate is soluble in water and glycerin. With water it forms the trihydrate, Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O, a colorless or white efflorescent monoclinic crystalline substance.
The substance is used as a reagent to make other lead compounds and as a fixative for some dyes. In low concentrations, it is the principal active ingredient in progressive types of hair coloring dyes. Lead(II) acetate is also used as a mordant in textile printing and dyeing, as a drier in paints and varnishes, and in preparing other lead compounds.
- UsesMordant in cotton dyes; lead coating for metals; drier in paints, varnishes and pigment inks; colorant in hair dyes. Weighting silks; manufacture of lead salts, chrome-yellow; as analytical reagent for detection of sulfide, determination of CrO3, MoO3.
- Uses2 – 1 - Sweetener
Like other lead (II) salts, lead (II) acetate has a sweet taste, which has led to its use as a sugar substitute throughout history. The ancient Romans, who had few sweeteners besides honey, would boil must (grape juice) in lead pots to produce a reduced sugar syrup called defrutum, concentrated again into sapa. This syrup was used to sweeten wine and to sweeten and preserve fruit. It is possible that lead(II) acetate or other lead compounds leaching into the syrup might have caused lead poisoning in anyone consuming it . Lead acetate is no longer used in the production of sweeteners in most of the world because of its recognized toxicity. Modern chemistry can easily detect it, which has all but stopped the illegal use that continued decades after legal use as a sweetener was banned .
2 – 1 - Sweetener2 – 1 – 1 - Resultant deaths
Pope Clement II died in October 1047. A toxicologic examination of his remains conducted in the mid – 20 th century confirmed centuries-old rumors that he had been poisoned with lead sugar.It is not clear if he was assassinated.
In 1787 painter Albert Christoph Dies swallowed, by accident, approximately 21 g of lead acetate. His recovery from this poison was slow and incomplete. He lived with illnesses until his death in 1822 .
Although the use of lead (II) acetate as a sweetener was already illegal at that time, composer Ludwig van Beethoven may have died of lead poisoning caused by wines adulterated with lead acetate.
Mary Seacole applied lead (II) acetate, among other remedies, against an epidemic of cholera in Panama.
- DefinitionChEBI: A lead coordination entity in which a central lead(2+) atom is coordinated to two acetate ions.
- Production MethodsAnhydrous lead acetate (plumbous acetate), Pb(C2H3O2)2, is a white, crystalline solid that decomposes on heating above its melting point. Because of its high solubility in water, lead acetate is often used for the preparation of other lead salts by the wet method. Lead acetate is made by dissolving lead monoxide (litharge) or lead carbonate in strong acetic acid. Several types of basic salts are formed when lead acetates are prepared from lead monoxide in dilute acetic acid or at high pH. The basic salts of lead acetate are white crystalline compounds, which are highly soluble in water and dissolve in ethyl alcohol.
- Production MethodsLead acetate can be made by boiling elemental lead in acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. It's also possible to create with lead carbonate or lead oxide.
Lead (II) acetate, as well as white lead, have been used in cosmetics throughout history, though this practice has ceased in Western countries . It is still used in men's hair coloring products like Grecian Formula.
Lead (II) acetate paper is used to detect the poisonous gas hydrogen sulfide. The gas reacts with lead (II) acetate on the moistened test paper to form a grey precipitate of lead (II) sulfide.
Lead (II) acetate solution was a commonly used folk remedy for sore nipples . In modern medicine, for a time, it was used as an astringent, in the form of Goulard's Extract.
An aqueous solution of lead (II) acetate is the by product of the 50 / 50 mixture of hydrogen peroxide and white vinegar used in the cleaning and maintenance of stainless steel fire arm suppressors (silencers) and compensators. The solution is agitated by the bubbling action of the hydrogen peroxide, and the main reaction is the dissolution of lead deposits within the suppressor by the acetic acid, which forms lead acetate. .
- Potential ExposureLead acetate is used as a color additive in hair dyes; as a mordant in cotton dyes, in the lead coating of metals; as a drier in paints; varnishes and pigment inks; and in medicinals, such as astringents. Incompatibilities: A strong reducing agent. Reacts violently with strong oxidizers, bromates, strong acids; chemically active metals; phosphates, carbonates, phenols. Contact with strong acids forms acetic acid. Incompatible with strong bases: ammonia, amines, cresols, isocyanates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin, sulfites, resorcinol, salicylic acid, and chloral hydrat
- ShippingUN1616 Lead acetate, Hazard Class: 6.1; Labels: 6.1-Poisonous materials
- Purification MethodsCrystallise it twice from anhydrous acetic acid and dry it under vacuum for 24hours at 100o. The solubility in H2O is 63% (at ~20o) and 200% (at boiling point). [Beilstein 2 IV 118.]
- IncompatibilitiesA strong reducing agent. Reacts violently with strong oxidizers, bromates, strong acids; chemically active metals; phosphates, carbonates, phenols. Contact with strong acids forms acetic acid. Incompatible with strong bases: ammonia, amines, cresols, isocyanates, alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin, sulfites, resorcinol, salicylic acid, and chloral hydrate
- Waste DisposalConvert to nitrate using nitric acid; evaporate, then saturate with H2S; wash and dry the sulfide and ship to the supplier. Consult with environmental regulatory agencies for guidance on acceptable disposal practices. Generators of waste containing this contaminant (≥100 kg/mo) must conform with EPA regulations governing storage, transportation, treatment, and waste disposal
- PrecautionsLead (II) acetate, as with any other lead salts, causes lead poisoning.
- LEAD ACETATE LEAD CYCLOHEXANEBUTYRATE LEAD(II) 2-ETHYLHEXANOATE LEAD BENZOATE LEAD TRIFLUOROACETATE LEAD(II) TARTRATE LEAD SUCCINATE DIBUTYLLEADDIACETATE LEAD ACETATE,Lead(Ⅱ)acetate LEAD LACTATE LEAD STEARATE DIPHENYL LEAD DIACETATE LEAD PALMITATE lead phthalate LEAD ACETATE BASIC,LEAD ACETATE MONOBASIC,LEAD ACETATE BASIC FOR SUGAR ANALYSIS ACCORDING TO HORNE (ETHYLENEDINITRILO)TETRA-ACETIC ACID, LEAD DISODIUM SALT Lead citrate Lead(Ⅱ) acetate basic,LEAD ACETATE MONOBASIC,BASIC LEAD ACETATE,Lead（Ⅳ）acetate basic,lead acetate, basic lead acetate
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