- Melting point:-55 °C (lit.)
- Boiling point:240 °C (lit.)
- Density 1.204 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)
- vapor pressure 0.13 mm Hg ( 20 °C)
- refractive index n
- Flash point:270 °F
- storage temp. Store below +30°C.
- solubility 240g/l
- form Liquid
- color Clear
- Specific Gravity1.209 (20/4℃)
- PH7.0 (200g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- Relative polarity6
- explosive limit1.8-14.3%(V)
- Water Solubility 240 g/L (20 ºC)
- λmaxλ: 235 nm Amax: 1.00
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.50
λ: 300 nm Amax: 0.30
λ: 350 nm Amax: 0.05
λ: 375-400 nm Amax: 0.01
- BRN 107913
- Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents, acids, bases, reducing agents. Protect from contact with moist air or water.
- CAS DataBase Reference108-32-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
- NIST Chemistry ReferencePropylene carbonate(108-32-7)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemPropylene carbonate (108-32-7)
- Propylene Carbonate as Solvent
In the context of Green Chemistry, processes that minimise environmental impact are of great interest at both the industrial and academic levels, and the use of solvents that are innocuous to the environment is also a factor of great interest. Propylene carbonate maybe an appropriate choice. Not only it has a low evaporation rate, low toxicity, and VOC exemption, PC also has other benefits such as:
- Improves lubricity
- It is chemically stable
- Co-firing in any atmosphere without oxidation
- Excellent viscosity properties and green strength
- Propylene Carbonate is one of the most eco-efficient alternatives for coating wires
- Chemical Propertiescolourless liquid
- Chemical PropertiesPropylene carbonate is a clear, colorless, mobile liquid, with a faint odor.
- UsesPharmaceutic aid (gelling agent).
- Usespropylene carbonate is used in chemical reactions as a solvent, plasticizer, solubilizer, or dilutent.
- Production MethodsPropylene carbonate may be prepared by the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with propylene chlorohydrin.
- PreparationTo a stirred solution of 1,2- propanediol 957 (230 mg, 3.0 mmol) in toluene (8 mL) was added DPC (670 mg, 3.1 mmol). After stirring at 110 ℃ for 1.5 h, the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature, diluted with dichloromethane (40 mL), washed with brine (30 mL), dried over anhydrous MgSO4, and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure. The crude product was distilled in vacuo in a kugelrohr apparatus to give 4-methyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one 958 (254 mg) in 83% yield.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsPropylene carbonate is used mainly as a solvent in oral and topical
In topical applications, propylene carbonate has been used in combination with propylene glycol as a solvent for corticosteroids. The corticosteroid is dissolved in the solvent mixture to yield microdroplets that can then be dispersed in petrolatum.Propylene carbonate has been used as a dispensing solvent in topical preparations.
Propylene carbonate has also been used in hard gelatin capsules as a nonvolatile, stabilizing, liquid carrier. For formulations with a low dosage of active drug, a uniform drug content may be obtained by dissolving the drug in propylene carbonate and then spraying this solution on to a solid carrier such as compressible sugar; the sugar may then be filled into hard gelatin capsules
Propylene carbonate may additionally be used as a solvent, at room and elevated temperatures, for many cellulose-based polymers and plasticizers. Propylene carbonate is also used in cosmetics.
- SafetyPropylene carbonate is used as a solvent in oral and topical
pharmaceutical formulations, and is generally regarded as an
essentially nontoxic and nonirritant material.
In animal studies, propylene carbonate was found to cause tissue necrosis after parenteral administration.
(mouse, oral): 20.7 g/kg
(mouse, SC): 15.8 g/kg
(rat, oral): 29 g/kg
(rat, SC): 11.1 g/kg
- storagePropylene carbonate and its aqueous solutions are stable but may
degrade in the presence of acids or bases, or upon heating;
Store in a well-closed container in a cool, dry place.
- Purification MethodsIt is manufactured by reaction of 1,2-propylene oxide with CO2 in the presence of a catalyst (quaternary ammonium halide). Contaminants include propylene oxide, carbon dioxide, 1,2-and 1,3-propanediols, allyl alcohol and ethylene carbonate. It can be purified by percolation through molecular sieves (Linde 5A, dried at 350o for 14hours under a stream of argon), followed by distillation under a vacuum. [Jasinski & Kirkland Anal Chem 39 163 1967.] It can be stored over molecular sieves under an inert gas atmosphere. When purified in this way it contains less than 2ppm of water. Activated alumina and dried CaO have also been used as drying agents prior to fractional distillation under reduced pressure. It has been dried with 3A molecular sieves and distilled under nitrogen in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid, then redistilled and the middle fraction collected. [Beilstein 19 III/IV 1564, 19/4 V 21.]
- IncompatibilitiesPropylene carbonate hydrolyzes rapidly in the presence of strong acids and bases, forming mainly propylene oxide and carbon dioxide. Propylene carbonate can also react with primary and secondary amines to yield carbamates.
- Regulatory StatusIncluded in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (topical ointments). Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Nonmedicinal Ingredients.
- DICAPRYLYL CARBONATE DIBUTYL CARBONATE Ethyl methyl carbonate PHENYL FORMATE DIBENZYL CARBONATE Chloromethyl pivalate Vinylene carbonate Potassium phthalimide Diphenyl carbonate Titanium tetraisopropanolate Tetrabutyl titanate Diethyl carbonate DMC Ethylene carbonate Titanium ethoxide PROPYLENE CARBONATE FOR SYNTHESIS 50% Propylene carbonate 1,3-Propylene carbonate
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