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Norepinephrine

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Norepinephrine Basic information
Norepinephrine Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:220-230°C
  • alpha D25 -37.3° (c = 5 in water with 1 equiv HCl)
  • Boiling point:298.46°C (rough estimate)
  • Density 1.2435 (rough estimate)
  • refractive index 1.5100 (estimate)
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • pka8.64(at 25℃)
  • form crystalline
  • color off-white to tan
  • Water Solubility Soluble in alkali and dilute hydrochloric acid. Slightly soluble in water, ethanol and diethyl ether.
  • Sensitive Air & Light Sensitive
  • Merck 14,6695
  • BRN 4231961
  • Stability:Stable, but may be light-sensitive. Incompatible with acids, bases, oxidizing agents. Store at -20C.
  • CAS DataBase Reference51-41-2(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemNorepinephrine (51-41-2)
Safety Information
MSDS
Norepinephrine Usage And Synthesis
  • Chemical Propertiessolid
  • UsesVascular active drug resistance to shock
  • UsesAn adrenergic neurotransmitter.
  • DefinitionChEBI: The R-enantiomer of noradrenaline.
  • brand nameLevophed (Hospira);Noradrec;Xylotox.
  • World Health Organization (WHO)Vasoconstrictor agents have been in use for many years to prolong duration of action of local anaesthetics, particularly in dentistry. Combination products containing epinephrine or levarterenol in concentrations of 1:80,000 or less remain widely available. See also WHO comment for epinephrine.
  • Biological FunctionsMost central noradrenergic neurons are located in the nucleus locus ceruleus of the pons and in neurons of the reticular formation. Fibers from these nuclei innervate a large number of cortical, subcortical, and spinomedullary fields. Many functions have been ascribed to the central noradrenergic neurons, including a role in affective disorders (see Chapter 33), in learning and memory, and in sleep–wake cycle regulation.The mammalian CNS contains both α- and β-adrenoceptors.
  • General DescriptionNorepinephrine (NE, Levophed) differs from DA onlyby addition of a 1-OH substituent (β-OH-DA) and from Eonly by lacking the N-methyl group. Like DA, it is polar andrapidly metabolized by both COMT and MAO, resulting inpoor oral bioavailability and short DOA (1 or 2 minutes evenwhen given intravenously). It is a stimulant of α1-, α2-, andβ1-adrenoceptors (notice that lacking the N-methyl group resultsin lacking β2- and β3-activity). It is used to counteractvarious hypotensive crises, because its α-activity raisesblood pressure and as an adjunct treatment in cardiac arrestbecause its β-activity stimulates the heart. It has limitedclinical application caused by the nonselective nature of itsactivities.
  • HazardMay cause local tissue necrosis, headache, bradycardia, hypertension; poison; teratogen; mutagen.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and intravenous routes. An experimental teratogen. Experimental reproductive effects. Human mutation data reported. A sympathomimetic vasopressor. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of NOx.
  • Purification MethodsRecrystallise adrenor from EtOH and store it in the dark under N2. [pKa, Lewis Brit J Pharmacol Chemother 9 488 1954, UV: Bergstr.m et al. Acta Physiol Scand 20 101 1950, Fluorescence: Bowman et al. Science NY 122 32 1955, Tullar J Am Chem Soc 70 2067 1948.] The L-tartrate salt monohydrate has m 102-104.5o, [] D -11o (c 1.6, H2O), after recrystallisation from H2O or EtOH. [Beilstein 13 III 2382.]
Norepinephrine Preparation Products And Raw materials
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