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Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Basic information Anionic surfactants Toxicity Sodium dodecyl sulfonate Utilization limitation Chemical property Uses Production method Safety Related Supplier
Sodium dodecyl sulfate Chemical Properties
- Melting point:204-207 °C(lit.)
- Density 1.03 g/mL at 20 °C
- FEMA 4437 | SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE
- Flash point:>100°C
- storage temp. Store at RT.
- solubility H2O: 0.1 M, clear to nearly clear, colorless to slightly yellow
- form Powder or Crystals
- color White to pale yellow
- OdorSlight fatty odour
- PH6-9 (10g/l, H2O, 20℃)
- PH Range7.2
- Water Solubility ca. 150 g/L (20 ºC)
- λmaxλ: 260 nm Amax: 0.3
λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.2
- Merck 14,8636
- BRN 3599286
- CAS DataBase Reference151-21-3(CAS DataBase Reference)
- EPA Substance Registry SystemSodium lauryl sulfate (151-21-3)
- Hazard Codes F,Xn,Xi
- Risk Statements 36/37/38-36/38-22-11-21/22-42-41-20/21/22-37/38
- Safety Statements 26-36/37-36/37/39-36-22-39
- RIDADR UN 2926 4.1/PG 2
- WGK Germany 2
- RTECS WT1050000
- F 3
- TSCA Yes
- HazardClass 4.1
- PackingGroup III
- HS Code 29209010
- Hazardous Substances Data151-21-3(Hazardous Substances Data)
- ToxicityLD50 orally in rats: 1288 mg/kg (Walker)
Sodium dodecyl sulfate Usage And Synthesis
- Anionic surfactantsSodium dodecyl sulfate is an anionic surfactant, and is a typical representative of sulphate-based surfactant. It is abbreviated as SDS, and also known as AS, K12, coco alcohol sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate and foaming agent. The commercial products are usually white to light yellow crystalline powder. It is non-toxic, slightly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in chloroform and ether, soluble in water, and has good anionic and nonionic complex compatibility. It has good emulsibility, foamability, and foaming, infiltrating, decontaminating and dispersing properties. It is abundant in foams and quickly biodegradable, and has solubility next only to fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sodium sulphate (abbreviated as AES). It is not sensitive to alkali and hard water, but its stability is inferior to general sulfonate under acidic conditions and is close to AES. It is not favorable to exceed 95 °C upon long-term heating, and its irritation is at the middle level among surfactants, with an irritation index of 3.3 for a 10% solution, which is higher than AES and lower than sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (abbreviated as LAS). Toxicity LD50 is 1300mg/kg. There is no evidence that this product is carcinogenic, but high doses may indeed irritate the skin. However, in general sanitary products the concentration is limited when used as a forming agent, and is in line with national standards. So there is no need to concern.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate is a major component of detergent. It is usually used in the DNA extraction process to separate DNA after protein denaturation. It is often misread as sodium dodecyl sulfonate. It is widely used as a foaming agent in toothpaste, soap, shower gel, shampoo, detergent and cosmetics. 95% of personal care products and household cleaning products contain sodium lauryl sulfate.
The above information is edited by the chemicalbook of Jin Yinxue.
- ToxicityIt can be safely used for food, but the content of sodium lauryl sulfate should not be less than 90% (FDA, §172.822, 2000). LD50 is 1288mg/kg (rat, oral).
- Sodium dodecyl sulfonateThere is certain universality of confusion and misuse for them, both of which belong to the anionic surfactants and the English abbreviations are both SDS. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (abbreviated as SDS) is also called sodium lauryl sulfate (abbreviated as SLS), belongs to sulfate salt and has a molecular weight of 288.38. It is a white or light yellow crystal, and is easily soluble in water. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (abbreviated as SDS) belongs to sulfonate, has a molecular weight of 272.38, and differs with the structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate in that it lacks one oxygen atom and the carbon atom is directly connected to the sulfur atom. Please note the difference so as to avoid misuse.
- Utilization limitation(FDA, §172.822, 2000, mg/kg): dry protein 1000; frozen protein 125; liquid protein 125; marshmallow foaming agent used in an amount of 0.5% gelatin; as a surfactant for solid drinks acidified with fumaric acid and juice drinks acidified with fumaric acid, 25; as moisturizers for grease, 10 (amount of grease). According to the regulation of (FDA, §172.210, 2000), it can be used as a citrus fruit surface coating agent, and the amount is limited per GMP.
- Chemical propertyIt is a white to pale yellow powder, has a slight special smell, and is easily soluble in water.
- UsesSodium dodecyl sulfate has excellent detergency, emulsification and foaming power, can be used as detergents and textile auxiliaries, and is also used as an anionic surfactant, toothpaste foaming agent, mine fire extinguishing agents, foaming agents for fire extinguishers, emulsion polymerization emulsifiers, emulsifying and dispersing agents for medical use, shampoo and other cosmetic products, wool detergent, detergent for silky class fine fabrics and flotation agent for metal beneficiation.
GB 2760-96 stipulates as processing aids for food industry. It used as foaming agents; emulsifying agents; and anionic surfactants. It is used for cakes, drinks, proteins, fruits, fruit juice, and edible oil, and so on.
It is used as surfactants, detergents, foaming agents, and wetting agents, and so on.
It is used as relatively low-level ion-pairing reagents, and is cheaper than sodium heptanesulfonate and sodium pentanesulfonate when less demanding.
It is used as raw material for modifying materials.
It is used as additives in capillary electrophoresis analysis and is generally used as molar solution.
It is also used in other analysis such as flow column analysis.
- Production methodSulphur trioxide method: the reaction apparatus is a vertical reactor. At 32 °C nitrogen gas is introduced into the reactor through the gas vents at a flow rate of 85.9 L·min-1. At 82.7 kPa lauryl alcohol is introduced at a flow rate of 58 g·min-1. The liquid sulfur trioxide is fed into flash evaporator at 124.1 kPa, the flash temperature is maintained at 100 °C, and sulfur trioxide flow rate is controlled to be 0.907 2 kg·h-1. Sulfated product is then rapidly quenched to 50 °C, injected into the aging device and left for 10 to 20 min, and finally injected into the neutralization kettle and neutralized with a base. The neutralizing temperature is controlled at 50 °C. The material is discharged when the pH value is adjusted to 7 to 8.5, to obtain a liquid product which is spray dried to give a solid product.
Batch method: lauryl alcohol is charged into reaction kettle and pre-heated to 30 °C. Then chlorosulfonic acid 0.03 mol in excess than the theoretical amount is sprayed into the alcohol under high speed agitation. The reaction temperature was controlled at 30 to 35 °C. After the sulfation reaction, it is injected into the neutralization kettle and neutralized with 30% lye to a pH value of 7 to 8.5, and finally bleached with 0.4% (weight) hydrogen peroxide. It is spray dried to give a solid. It can also be formulated into solutions according to quality standard.
Continuous method: the reaction apparatus is tubular reactor. Lauryl alcohol is initially saturated with hydrogen chloride. Lauryl alcohol at a flow rate of 334 g·min-1 and hydrogen chloride at a flow rate of 40.5 g·min-1 are fed into saturation chamber through gauge. Then the solution of lauryl alcohol with hydrogen chloride is fed into reactor at 21.4 °C to react with chlorosulfonic acid. After the reaction is subjected to gas-liquid separation, the sulfated product flows from the bottom of the separator into neutralization kettle. It is neutralized with 30% sodium hydroxide at 50 °C to give a liquid product, which is spray dried to give a solid product.
- Chemical PropertiesWhite crystalline flakes
- Chemical PropertiesSodium lauryl sulfate consists of white or cream to pale yellowcolored crystals, flakes, or powder having a smooth feel, a soapy, bitter taste, and a faint odor of fatty substances.
- UsesSodium dodecyl sulfate is an emulsifier and whipping aid that has a solubility of 1 g in 10 ml of water. It functions as an emulsifier in egg whites. It is used as a whipping aid in marshmallows and angel food cake mix. It also functions to aid in dissolving fumaric acid.
- UsesAnionic detergent
- Useshydrophilic tablet lubricant
- UsesWetting agent, detergent, especially in the textile industry. Electrophoretic separation of proteins and lipids. Ingredient of toothpastes.
- DefinitionAn anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates that lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions.
- Production MethodsSodium lauryl sulfate is prepared by sulfation of lauryl alcohol, followed by neutralization with sodium carbonate.
- General DescriptionWhite to pale yellow paste or liquid with a mild odor. Sinks and mixes with water.
- Air & Water ReactionsInsoluble in water.
- Reactivity ProfileDODECYL SULFATE is incompatible with strong oxidizers. Sodium dodecyl sulfate is also incompatible with cationic materials and with acids with pH below 2.5. Salts, basic, such as DODECYL SULFATE, are generally soluble in water. The resulting solutions contain moderate concentrations of hydroxide ions and have pH's greater than 7.0. They react as bases to neutralize acids. These neutralizations generate heat, but less or far less than is generated by neutralization of the bases in reactivity group 10 (Bases) and the neutralization of amines. They usually do not react as either oxidizing agents or reducing agents but such behavior is not impossible.
- Health HazardInhalation of dust causes sneezing and coughing. Ingestion of large amounts causes irritation of stomach. Dust irritates eyes and may cause burns on prolonged contact. Contact with skin causes some irritation; continued exposure to water solution causes drying out and cracking.
- Fire HazardFlash point data for Sodium dodecyl sulfate are not available; however, Sodium dodecyl sulfate is probably combustible.
- Pharmaceutical ApplicationsSodium lauryl sulfate is an anionic surfactant employed in a wide
range of nonparenteral pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics.
It is a detergent and wetting agent effective in both alkaline and acidic conditions. In recent years it has found application in analytical electrophoretic techniques: SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is one of the more widely used techniques for the analysis of proteins; and sodium lauryl sulfate has been used to enhance the selectivity of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC).
- Contact allergensThis anionic detergent is widely used in cosmetics and industry. As a skin irritant agent, SLS can be used in several dermatological applications. It is also a good indicator of excited skin during patch testing.
- Safety ProfilePoison by intravenous and intraperitoneal routes. Moderately toxic by ingestion. An experimental teratogen. A human skin irritant. An experimental eye and severe skin irritant. A mild allergen. Mutation data reported. When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SO, and Na2O. See also ESTERS and SULFATES.
- SafetySodium lauryl sulfate is widely used in cosmetics and oral and
topical pharmaceutical formulations. It is a moderately toxic
material with acute toxic effects including irritation to the skin,
eyes, mucous membranes, upper respiratory tract, and stomach.
Repeated, prolonged exposure to dilute solutions may cause drying
and cracking of the skin; contact dermatitis may develop.(3)
Prolonged inhalation of sodium lauryl sulfate will damage the
lungs. Pulmonary sensitization is possible, resulting in hyperactive
airway dysfunction and pulmonary allergy. Animal studies have
shown intravenous administration to cause marked toxic effects to
the lung, kidney, and liver. Mutagenic testing in bacterial systems
has proved negative.
Adverse reactions to sodium lauryl sulfate in cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations mainly concern reports of irritation to the skin or eyes following topical application.
Sodium lauryl sulfate should not be used in intravenous preparations for humans. The probable human lethal oral dose is 0.5–5.0 g/kg body-weight.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 0.25 g/kg
LD50 (mouse, IV): 0.12 g/kg
LD50 (rat, oral): 1.29 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IP): 0.21 g/kg
LD50 (rat, IV): 0.12 g/kg
- storageSodium lauryl sulfate is stable under normal storage conditions.
However, in solution, under extreme conditions, i.e. pH 2.5 or
below, it undergoes hydrolysis to lauryl alcohol and sodium
The bulk material should be stored in a well-closed container away from strong oxidizing agents in a cool, dry place.
- Purification MethodsPurify this detergent by Soxhlet extraction with pet ether for 24hours, followed by dissolution in acetone/MeOH/H2O 90:5:5(v/v) and recrystallisation [Politi et al. J Phys Chem 89 2345 1985]. It has been purified by two recrystallisations from absolute EtOH, aqueous 95% EtOH, MeOH, isopropanol or a 1:1 mixture of EtOH/isopropanol to remove dodecanol, and dried under vacuum [Ramesh & Labes J Am Chem Soc 109 3228 1987]. SDS has also been purified by repeatedly foaming whereby a 0.15% aqueous solution is made to foam and the foam is discarded, then the H2O is removed in vacuo and the residue is diluted to the required concentrations [see Cockbain & McMullen Trans Faraday Soc 47 322 1951] or by liquid-liquid extraction [see Harrold J Colloid Sci 15 280 1960]. Dry it over silica gel. For DNA work it should be dissolved in excess MeOH passed through an activated charcoal column and evaporated until it crystallises out. It has also been purified by dissolving in hot 95% EtOH (14mL/g), filtering and cooling, then drying in a vacuum desiccator. Alternatively, it is crystallised from H2O, vacuum dried, washed with anhydrous Et2O and dried in vacuum again. These operations are repeated five times [Maritato J Phys Chem 89 1341 1985, Lennox and McClelland J Am Chem Soc 108 3771 1986, Dressik J Am Chem Soc 108 7567 1986]. [Beilstein 1 IV 1847.]
- IncompatibilitiesSodium lauryl sulfate reacts with cationic surfactants, causing loss
of activity even in concentrations too low to cause precipitation.
Unlike soaps, it is compatible with dilute acids and calcium and
Sodium lauryl sulfate is incompatible with salts of polyvalent metal ions, such as aluminum, lead, tin or zinc, and precipitates with potassium salts. Solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate (pH 9.5–10.0) are mildly corrosive to mild steel, copper, brass, bronze, and aluminum.
- Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental preparations; oral capsules, suspensions, and tablets; topical and vaginal preparations). Included in nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
Sodium dodecyl sulfate Preparation Products And Raw materials
- Preparation ProductsCarbomer 940Erythromycin 2'-propionate dodecyl sulfateStyrene-acrylic latexribonucleic acid for injectionsheeting sensitized gluemodified acrylic resin emulsion Jselfcrossline adhesive 76012'-AMINOACETANILIDEbinding agent SH-821acrylate resin emulsion s-1sec-alkyl sodium sulfateacrylate resin emulsion new typemodified acrylic resin emulsion BNacramoll W pasteacrylic resin emulsion FX-1oilling tanning agentDSF-3 wax emulsionfrothing agent K14WG series wax emulsion
- Raw materialsEtanolSodium hydroxideHydrochloric acidDichloromethaneHexaneHydrogen peroxideChlorosulfonic acidCarbomer 940SULFATE STANDARDDodecyl alcoholSulfur trioxideMetering vessel
- 1-DODECANESULFONIC ACID SODIUM SALT Barium sulfate Magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Sulfuric acid Ammonium lauryl sulfate dodecyl sulfate Sodium sulfate SODIUM LAURYL ETHER SULPHATE Dimethyl succinate Methyl acrylate sodium sulfate BUTYL OLEATE Ammonium sulfate GOLD COAST SOLUTION NO 1 Aluminum sulfate Sodium thiosulfate 1-Dodecanol
Sodium dodecyl sulfate SupplierMore
- Company Name:Hunan lichen aowei industrial co. LTD Gold
- Products Intro:Product Name:Sodium dodecyl sulfate
- Company Name:Spectrum Chemical Manufacturing Corp. Gold
- Products Intro:Product Name:SodiuM Lauryl Sulfate, Ultrapure
Purity:Ultrapure Package:100GM Remarks:S1331
- Company Name:Univar Solutions(China) Co., Ltd. Gold
- Tel:021-61932772 13012862996
- Products Intro:Product Name:Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Purity:99% Package:1kg; 500g;200kg Remarks:STEOL?CS-370 (Stepan)
- Company Name:Shanghai Aladdin Bio-Chem Technology Co.,LTD Gold
- Tel:400-620-6333 021-20337333-801
- Products Intro:Product Name:Sodium dodecyl sulfate
- Company Name:Shanghai BaiShun Biological Technology Co., Ltd Gold
- Products Intro:Product Name:Sodium dodecyl sulfate