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(+)-Pilocarpine hydrochloride

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(+)-Pilocarpine hydrochloride Basic information
(+)-Pilocarpine hydrochloride Chemical Properties
  • Melting point:202-205 °C(lit.)
  • alpha 89 º (C=5, H2O)
  • storage temp. 2-8°C
  • solubility H2O: 100 mg/mL
  • form powder
  • color white
  • Water Solubility soluble
  • Sensitive Hygroscopic
  • Merck 14,7424
  • BRN 4034491
  • Stability:Hygroscopic
  • CAS DataBase Reference54-71-7(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA Substance Registry SystemPilocarpine monohydrochloride (54-71-7)
Safety Information
  • Hazard Codes T+,T
  • Risk Statements 26/28-25-23
  • Safety Statements 25-45
  • RIDADR UN 1544 6.1/PG 3
  • WGK Germany 3
  • RTECS TK1450000
  • 3-8-10
  • HazardClass 6.1
  • PackingGroup III
  • HS Code 29399990
(+)-Pilocarpine hydrochloride Usage And Synthesis
  • DescriptionIt is a bioactive chemical usually used as pharmaceutical agents such as acetylcholine receptor agonist, antiglaucoma agent, moitic, and sialogogue. Specifically, due to its desirable activity as acetylcholine receptor agonist, this chemical has been introduced to regulate muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function in acetylcholinesterase knockout mice.1 Moreover, because of its good antiglaucoma effect, this substance is applied in a timolol plus maximum-tolerated antiglaucoma therapy.2 In addition, this chemical has been demonstrated to show a favourable miotic activity when incorporated into polymer capsules.3 Besides, this compound can be utilized to relieve the xerostomia due to chronic graft-versus-host disease or total-body irradiation after bone-marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies.4
  • Reference
    1. Li, B.; Duysen, E. G.; Volpicelli-Daley, L. A.; Levey, A. I.; Lockridge, O., Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor function in acetylcholinesterase knockout mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2003, 74, 977-986.
    2. Zimmerman, T. J.; Gillespie, J. E.; Kass, M. A.; Yablonski, M. E.; Becker, B., TIMOLOL PLUS MAXIMUM-TOLERATED ANTI-GLAUCOMA THERAPY. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1979, 97, 278-279.
    3. V Vidmar; S Pepeljnjak; Jalsenjak, I., The in vivo evaluation of poly(lactic acid) microcapsules of pilocarpine hydrochloride. Journal of Microencapsulation 1985, 2, 289-292.
    4. Nagler, R. M.; Nagler, A., Pilocarpine hydrochloride relieves xerostomia in chronic graft-versus-host disease: a sialometrical study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999, 23, 1007-1011.
  • Chemical PropertiesCrystalline Solid
  • UsesAcetylcholine receptor agonist
  • Uses(+)-Pilocarpine hydrochloride is a muscarinic M1 and M2 acetylcholine receptor agonist with pKB values of 5 and 3.7, respectively. Systemic administration of (+)-Pilocarpine hydrochloride is typically used as an animal model for temporal lobe epilepsy and can mimic the generation of complex partial seizures by producing changes in hippocampal neuron morphology, membrane properties, and synaptic responses.
  • UsesAntiglaucoma agent; miotic; sialogogue.
  • brand namePilopine (Alcon); Salagen (Millot Laboratories, France).
  • General DescriptionPilocarpine monohydrochlorideis the hydrochloride of an alkaloid obtainedfrom the dried leaflets of Pilocarpus jaborandi or P. microphyllus,in which it occurs to the extent of about 0.5% togetherwith other alkaloids.
  • Biological ActivityMuscarinic agonist.
  • Safety ProfilePoison by ingestion, intraperitoneal, and intravenous routes. Experimental teratogenic and reproductive effects. Human systemic effects: cardiac changes. When heated to decomposition it emits very toxic fumes of HCl and NOx. See also PILOCARPINE.
  • Veterinary Drugs and TreatmentsPilocarpine is a miotic agent that is rarely used in the treatment of canine primary glaucoma. Pilocarpine causes the ciliary body muscle to constrict placing posteriorly directed tension on the base of the iris to mechanically pull open the iridocorneal angle structures. By causing miosis, it may prevent closure of the iridocorneal angle by preventing excess iris tissue from peripherally compromising the outflow of aqueous humor. Pilocarpine has also been used for diagnostic localization of parasympathetic denervation of the iris sphincter caused by lesions or trauma to Cranial Nerve III.
    The popularity of treatment of KCS with ophthalmic cyclosporine and tacrolimus has been associated with a decline in the use of pilocarpine for this disease; however, pilocarpine is still used orally as the primary treatment of neurogenic keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs as this condition does not respond to cyclosporine or tacrolimus.
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