Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung Produkt Beschreibung

Ammonium hydroxide Struktur
1336-21-6
  • CAS-Nr.1336-21-6
  • Bezeichnung:Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung
  • Englisch Name:Ammonium hydroxide
  • Synonyma:Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung;Ammoniakwasser;Ammoniumhydrat;Salmiakgeist
    Suprapur?;AMMONIA R;aquammonia;AMMONIA TS;Ammonia 25%;AQUA AMMONIA;AMMONIA WATER;Ammonium water;Aqua ammonium ;ammoniawater29%
  • CBNumber:CB1853050
  • Summenformel:H5NO
  • Molgewicht:35.05
  • MOL-Datei:1336-21-6.mol
Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :-77°C
  • Siedepunkt: :36°C
  • Dichte :0.91 g/mL at 20 °C
  • Dampfdichte :1.2 (vs air)
  • Dampfdruck :115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution
  • storage temp.  :Store at RT.
  • Aggregatzustand :Liquid, Single Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
  • pka :9.3(at 25℃)
  • Farbe :Colorless
  • Wichte :approximate 0.96 (10%, 15℃)
  • Geruch (Odor) :Strong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm
  • Explosionsgrenze :27%
  • Wasserlöslichkeit :Miscible with water.
  • maximale Wellenlänge (λmax) :λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
    λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
  • Merck  :14,494
  • BRN  :3587154
  • Stabilität: :Stable. Incompatible with copper, copper alloys, acids, galvanised iron, zinc, aluminium, bronze, dimethyl sulphate, mercury, alkali metals.
  • InChIKey :VHUUQVKOLVNVRT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS Datenbank :1336-21-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA chemische Informationen :Ammonium hydroxide ((NH4)(OH))(1336-21-6)
Sicherheit
  • Kennzeichnung gefährlicher :C,N
  • R-Sätze: :34-50-22
  • S-Sätze: :26-36/37/39-45-61
  • RIDADR  :UN 2672 8/PG 3
  • WGK Germany  :2
  • RTECS-Nr. :BQ9625000
  • F  :34
  • Selbstentzündungstemperatur :690 °C (for ammonia)
  • TSCA  :Yes
  • HazardClass  :8
  • PackingGroup  :III
  • HS Code  :28142000
  • Giftige Stoffe Daten :1336-21-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • Toxizität :LD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
    PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
    TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
    STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)

Ammonium hydroxide Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD LEICHT FLüCHTIGE, FARBLOSE LöSUNG VON AMMONIAK IN WASSER MIT STECHENDEM GERUCH.
  • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Reagiert mit vielen Schwermetallen und -salzen unter Bildung explosionsfähiger Verbindungen. Greift viele Metalle unter Bildung brennbarer/explosionsfähiger Gase an (z.B. Wasserstoff, ICSC-Nr. 0001). Die wässrige Lösung ist eine starke Base, sie reagiert sehr heftig mit Säuren.
  • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV: (als NH_3) 25 ppm (als TWA); 35 ppm (als STEL); (ACGIH 2005).
    MAK: 20 ppm, 14 mg/m? Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor I(2); Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).
  • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation der Dämpfe oder des Aerosols und durch Verschlucken.
  • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Beim Verdampfen bei 20°C kann sehr schnell eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft eintreten.
  • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
    Die Substanz verätzt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege. ätzend beim Verschlucken. Inhalation hoher Dampfkonzentrationen kann zu Kehlkopfödem, Entzündungen der Atemwege und Lungenentzündung führen. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein.
  • WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Risiko der Lungenschädigung bei wiederholter oder längerer Dampf- oder Aerosol-Exposition.
  • LECKAGE Gefahrenbereich verlassen! Fachmann zu Rate ziehen bei großen Mengen verschütteten Materials! Belüftung. Ausgelaufene Flüssigkeit vorsichtig mit verdünnter Säure, z.B. verdünnter Schwefelsäure neutralisieren. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen. NICHT in die Umwelt gelangen lassen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Vollschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.
  • R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.
    R50:Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen.
  • S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
    S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
    S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
    S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
  • Aussehen Eigenschaften NH5O, Salmiakgeist. 25 %ige Lösung in Wasser. Farblose Flüssigkeit mit stechendem Geruch.
  • Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt Verursacht Verätzungen. Reizt die Atmungsorgane. Einatmen führt zu Reizungen bis hin zum Lungenödem. Nach Verschlucken kommt es zu blutigem Erbrechen. Perforationsgefahr besteht für Magen und Speiseröhre.
    Nicht mit Laugen, Iod und starken Säuren in Berührung bringen.
    LD50 (oral, Ratte): 350 mg/kg
  • Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln Geeignete Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Spritzschutz.
  • Verhalten im Gefahrfall Dämpfe nicht einatmen.
    Mit flüssigkeitsbindendem Material, z.B. Rench Rapid aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Nachreinigen.
    Wasser, Schaum.
    Im Brandfall kann Ammoniak freigesetzt werden. Dämpfe mit Wasser niederschlagen.
  • Erste Hilfe Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abspülen. Abtupfen mit Polyethylenglycol 400.
    Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten ausspülen. Sofort Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Arzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser trinken lassen. Erbrechen vermeiden (Perforationsgefahr!). Sofort Arzt hinzuziehen. Keine Neutralisationsversuche!
    Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung sofort entfernen.
    Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

  • Sachgerechte Entsorgung Nach vorsichtiger Neutralisation mit z.B. Salzsäure zu den wässrigen, alkalischen Salzlösungen geben.
  • Beschreibung Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
    Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Ammonium Hydroxide is a colorless to milkywhite solution of ammonia, with a strong, irritating odor.Concentration of solutions range up to approximately 30% ammonia.
  • Verwenden ammonium hydroxide is used in cosmetic preparations as an alkali to neutralize excessive acidity in a formulation.
  • Verwenden Ammonium hydroxide is utilized in numerous applications:
    1. Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners.
    2. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber.
    3. Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces.
    4. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
    5. In furniture making, ammonium hydroxide is used to darken or stain wood containing tannic acid.
    6. In food production, ammonium hydroxide is used as a leavening agent or acidity regulator and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Its pH control abilities make it an effective antimicrobial agent. Ammonium hydroxide is also used to treat straw, producing "ammoniated straw" that is edible for cattle.
    7. In the tobacco industry, ammonium hydroxide is used for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid.
    8. Aqueous ammonia is used in the laboratory most often as a complexant and base in inorganic analysis. It can dissolve silver residues, and when used with copper (II) solutions, provides a deep blue coloration.
  • Verwenden Ammonium Hydroxide is an alkaline that is a clear, colorless solu- tion of ammonia which is used as a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a surface finishing agent. it is used in baked goods, cheese, puddings, processed fruits, and in the production of caramels.
  • Definition Ammonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.
  • Application
    Industry Application Role/benefit
    Food processing Baked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddings Leavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkaline
    Meat products Antimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to survive
    Cleaning Household and industrial cleansers Cleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteria
    Alkaline disinfectant Main ingredient/disinfects sarin
    Agriculture Manufacture of fertilizers Source of nitrogen
    Chemical manufacture Manufacture of alkyl amine Precursor/source of amino
    Cosmetics Hair dyes and colors pH adjusters/alkaline and safe
    Chemical analysis Determination of certain elements such as copper and nickel Precipitant/ helps to precipitate various elements
    Organic synthesis Amide coupling reactions Reagent/source of NH3
    SNAr reactions Nucleophile
    Catalytic reduction of nitriles Additive
    Others Wood staining Stain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acids
    Circuit board manufacturing Etching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metals
    Tobacco processing Processing aid/enhances tobacco flavor
    Treatment of straw for cattle Produce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattle
    Coagulation of natural rubber latex pH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
     
  • Allgemeine Beschreibung Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.
  • Air & Water Reaktionen Water soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.
  • Reaktivität anzeigen Ammonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).
  • Hazard Liquid and vapor extremely irritating, especially to eyes.
  • Health Hazard Ammonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
    TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
  • Brandgefahr Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
  • Brandgefahr Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
  • Flammability and Explosibility Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
  • Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung Ammonium hydroxide is also known as ammonia solution, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia or ammonia liquor. It is the solution of ammonia in water and is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed ammonia (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.
  • Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung Aqua ammonia, also called aqueous ammonia, ammonia liquor and ammonium hydroxide is ammonia dissolved in water to form a clear, colorless liquid with a pungent odor. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water. It has a pressure of less than 0.7 kg/cm2 and is usually composed of 25 to 29.4% ammonia by weight (20 to 25 % nitrogen).
    Ammonia dissolved in water is present principally as the ammonium ion (NH4+ )non-ionized molecular ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), sometimes referred to as an associated form of ammonium hydroxide, is also present. Hydrated molecules of ammonia (NH3) may also exist as NH3·H2O orNH3·2H2O.
    Purified water is used for the reaction of ammonia and water in the production process. The methods for water purification are (a) a conventional sodium-form water-softening ion exchange resin, which replaces all cations present with sodium ions, (b) both hydrogenform cation resin and hydroxyl-form anion resin, resulting in total de-ionisation of water, or (c) reverse osmosis purification equipment which results in total deionization of water.
    If water hardness is sufficiently low and/or if suitable filtration is available to remove the precipitate formed during the reaction of ammonia with water, the product can be manufactured without pre-treatment of water. For most water supplies, the precipitate is principally calcium carbonate.
    During the reaction of ammonia with water, a large amount of heat is generated, which requires heat exchangers to control the temperature. The resulting aqua ammonia contains ammonium ions (NH4+), hydroxyl ions (OH-), and non-ionized ammonium hydroxide molecules (NH4OH).
    The grade or strength of ammonium hydroxide available commercially is 26 degree Baume. The Baume reading refers to a specific gravity scale. A 26 degree Baume (Be) solution is equivalent to 29.4% by weight of ammonia dissolved in water. Since the Baume reading varies with temperature, the reading is standardized at minus 9.4℃. The density of the material compared to water is 0.8974. Ammonia products of 29.4% strength are also frequently described as 26° Be products, the freezing point of which is about minus 62.2℃.
    An aqueous solution has a vapor pressure which varies with temperature. At ambient temperatures, the vapor pressure of 26°Be material equals atmospheric pressure. This permits the material to be shipped and stored in non-pressurized containers. This is the highest strength material generally available commercially.
    Aqua ammonia should be stored in a closed container and kept cool, as otherwise the ammonia gas comes out of the solution and the strength reduces. The nitrogen concentration in aqua ammonia can be increased to 40 % by partial pressurization.
    Aqua ammonia is corrosive to copper, copper alloys, aluminum alloys and galvanized surfaces. Aqua ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer. Its pH varies with concentration; typical values of pH are 11.7 at 1 % , 12.2at5%, 12.4at 10% and 13.5at30%concentration.
    Transport and delivery costs limit the production of aqua ammonia (NH3) to small, local, fluid fertilizer plants. Aqua ammonia is regularly available in concentrations of 19%, 25 % and 29%. These are used for direct soil application or as inputs to produce other liquid fertilizers. Ammonia volatilizes quickly at temperatures above 10°C; therefore, aqua ammonia is usually injected into soil to depths of 5 to 10 cm. It should not be used in calcareous soil.
  • Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung The solution of ammonia in water is called ammonia solution, commonly referred to as aqua ammonia. It is also called aqueous ammonia, ammonia liquor or ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed NH3 (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.
  • Sicherheitsprofil A human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by inhalation and ingestion. A severe eye irritant. Human systemic irritant effects by ocular and inhalation routes. Mutation data reported. Incompatible with acrolein, nitromethane, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, halogens, (Au + aqua regia), HCl, HF, HNO3, oleum, ppropiolactone, propylene oxide, AgNO3, Ag2O, (Ag20 + C2H5OH), AgMn04, H2SO4. Dangerous; liquid can inflict burns. Use with adequate ventilation. When heated to decomposition it emits NH3 and NO2.
  • mögliche Exposition It is used in detergents, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, fibers, and resins.
  • Lager All work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact.
    Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.
  • Versand/Shipping UN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with .10% but not .35% ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
  • Inkompatibilitäten Solution is strongly alkaline. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, acids (exothermic reaction with strong mineral acids). Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with halogens, mercury oxide; silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by contact with β-propiolactone, silver nitrate; ethyl alcoho; silver permanganate; trimethylammonium amide; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride; selenium difluoride dioxide; boron halides; mercury, chlorine, iodine; bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach; amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin; aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, zinc, and their alloys.
  • Waste disposal Dilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer.
Ammonium hydroxide Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
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1336-21-6, Ammonium hydroxide Verwandte Suche:
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  • BUFFER TOTAL PROTEIN CELL LYSIS PROTEOMI
  • CASEIN PEPTONE LECITHIN POLYS. BROTH
  • HYPOTONIC LYSIS BUFFER
  • KARL FISCHER REAGENT COMBINORM 1
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