Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung Produkt Beschreibung

Ammonium hydroxide Struktur
1336-21-6
  • CAS-Nr.1336-21-6
  • Bezeichnung:Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung
  • Englisch Name:Ammonium hydroxide
  • Synonyma:Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung;Ammoniakwasser;Ammoniumhydrat;Salmiakgeist
    Suprapur?;AMMONIA R;AMMONIA TS;aquammonia;NH3 in H2O;Ammonia 25%;AQUA AMMONIA;AMMONIA WATER;Ammonium water;Aqua ammonium
  • CBNumber:CB1853050
  • Summenformel:H5NO
  • Molgewicht:35.05
  • MOL-Datei:1336-21-6.mol
Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
  • Schmelzpunkt: :-77°C
  • Siedepunkt: :36°C
  • Dichte :0.91 g/mL at 20 °C
  • Dampfdichte :1.2 (vs air)
  • Dampfdruck :115 mmHg at 20 °C for 29% solution
  • storage temp.  :2-8°C
  • Aggregatzustand :Liquid, Single Sub-Boiling Quartz Distillation
  • pka :9.3(at 25℃)
  • Farbe :Colorless
  • Wichte :approximate 0.96 (10%, 15℃)
  • Geruch (Odor) :Strong pungent ammonia odor detectable at 17 ppm
  • Explosionsgrenze :27%
  • Wasserlöslichkeit :Miscible with water.
  • maximale Wellenlänge (λmax) :λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.01
    λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.01
  • Merck  :14,494
  • BRN  :3587154
  • Stabilität: :Stable. Incompatible with copper, copper alloys, acids, galvanised iron, zinc, aluminium, bronze, dimethyl sulphate, mercury, alkali metals.
  • InChIKey :VHUUQVKOLVNVRT-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • CAS Datenbank :1336-21-6(CAS DataBase Reference)
  • EPA chemische Informationen :Ammonium hydroxide (1336-21-6)
Sicherheit
  • Kennzeichnung gefährlicher :C,N
  • R-Sätze: :34-50-22
  • S-Sätze: :26-36/37/39-45-61
  • RIDADR  :UN 2672 8/PG 3
  • WGK Germany  :2
  • RTECS-Nr. :BQ9625000
  • F  :34
  • Selbstentzündungstemperatur :690 °C (for ammonia)
  • TSCA  :Yes
  • HazardClass  :8
  • PackingGroup  :III
  • HS Code  :28142000
  • Giftige Stoffe Daten :1336-21-6(Hazardous Substances Data)
  • Toxizität :LD50 oral (rat) 350 mg/kg
    PEL (OSHA) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
    TLV-TWA (ACGIH) 25 ppm (17 mg/m3)
    STEL (ACGIH) 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)

Ammonium hydroxide Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden

  • ERSCHEINUNGSBILD LEICHT FLüCHTIGE, FARBLOSE LöSUNG VON AMMONIAK IN WASSER MIT STECHENDEM GERUCH.
  • CHEMISCHE GEFAHREN Reagiert mit vielen Schwermetallen und -salzen unter Bildung explosionsfähiger Verbindungen. Greift viele Metalle unter Bildung brennbarer/explosionsfähiger Gase an (z.B. Wasserstoff, ICSC-Nr. 0001). Die wässrige Lösung ist eine starke Base, sie reagiert sehr heftig mit Säuren.
  • ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTE TLV: (als NH_3) 25 ppm (als TWA); 35 ppm (als STEL); (ACGIH 2005).
    MAK: 20 ppm, 14 mg/m? Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor I(2); Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).
  • AUFNAHMEWEGE Aufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation der Dämpfe oder des Aerosols und durch Verschlucken.
  • INHALATIONSGEFAHREN Beim Verdampfen bei 20°C kann sehr schnell eine gesundheitsschädliche Kontamination der Luft eintreten.
  • WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
    Die Substanz verätzt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege. ätzend beim Verschlucken. Inhalation hoher Dampfkonzentrationen kann zu Kehlkopfödem, Entzündungen der Atemwege und Lungenentzündung führen. Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein.
  • WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITION Risiko der Lungenschädigung bei wiederholter oder längerer Dampf- oder Aerosol-Exposition.
  • LECKAGE Gefahrenbereich verlassen! Fachmann zu Rate ziehen bei großen Mengen verschütteten Materials! Belüftung. Ausgelaufene Flüssigkeit vorsichtig mit verdünnter Säure, z.B. verdünnter Schwefelsäure neutralisieren. Reste mit viel Wasser wegspülen. NICHT in die Umwelt gelangen lassen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Vollschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.
  • R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: R34:Verursacht Verätzungen.
    R50:Sehr giftig für Wasserorganismen.
  • S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung: S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
    S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
    S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
    S61:Freisetzung in die Umwelt vermeiden. Besondere Anweisungen einholen/Sicherheitsdatenblatt zu Rate ziehen.
  • Aussehen Eigenschaften NH5O, Salmiakgeist. 25 %ige Lösung in Wasser. Farblose Flüssigkeit mit stechendem Geruch.
  • Gefahren für Mensch und Umwelt Verursacht Verätzungen. Reizt die Atmungsorgane. Einatmen führt zu Reizungen bis hin zum Lungenödem. Nach Verschlucken kommt es zu blutigem Erbrechen. Perforationsgefahr besteht für Magen und Speiseröhre.
    Nicht mit Laugen, Iod und starken Säuren in Berührung bringen.
    LD50 (oral, Ratte): 350 mg/kg
  • Schutzmaßnahmen und Verhaltensregeln Geeignete Schutzhandschuhe als kurzzeitiger Spritzschutz.
  • Verhalten im Gefahrfall Dämpfe nicht einatmen.
    Mit flüssigkeitsbindendem Material, z.B. Rench Rapid aufnehmen. Der Entsorgung zuführen. Nachreinigen.
    Wasser, Schaum.
    Im Brandfall kann Ammoniak freigesetzt werden. Dämpfe mit Wasser niederschlagen.
  • Erste Hilfe Nach Hautkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser abspülen. Abtupfen mit Polyethylenglycol 400.
    Nach Augenkontakt: Mit reichlich Wasser bei geöffnetem Lidspalt mindestens 10 Minuten ausspülen. Sofort Augenarzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Einatmen: Frischluft. Arzt hinzuziehen.
    Nach Verschlucken: Reichlich Wasser trinken lassen. Erbrechen vermeiden (Perforationsgefahr!). Sofort Arzt hinzuziehen. Keine Neutralisationsversuche!
    Nach Kleidungskontakt: Kontaminierte Kleidung sofort entfernen.
    Ersthelfer: siehe gesonderten Anschlag

  • Sachgerechte Entsorgung Nach vorsichtiger Neutralisation mit z.B. Salzsäure zu den wässrigen, alkalischen Salzlösungen geben.
  • Beschreibung Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless, liquid solution with a characteristic and pungent odor. It is ammonia combined with water. Ammonia (NH3) is a compound consisting of nitrogen and hydrogen. Both ammonia and ammonium hydroxide are very common compounds, found naturally in the environment (in air, water, and soil) and in all plants and animals, including humans. Ammonia is a source of nitrogen, an essential element for plants and animals. Ammonia is also produced by the human body – by our organs and tissues and by beneficial bacteria living in our intestines.
    Ammonia plays an important role in protein synthesis in the human body. In brief summary, all living things need proteins, which are comprised of some 20 different amino acids. While plants and microorganisms can synthesize most amino acids from the nitrogen in the atmosphere, animals cannot. For humans, some amino acids cannot be synthesized at all and must be consumed as intact amino acids. Other amino acids, however, can be synthesized by microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of ammonia ions. Thus, ammonia is a key player in the nitrogen cycle and in protein synthesis. Ammonia also helps maintain the body's pH balance.
  • Chemische Eigenschaften Ammonium hydroxide exists only in the form of an aqueous solution. The compound is prepared by dissolving NH3 in H2O and usually is referred to in industrial trade as aqua ammonia. For industrial procurements, the concentration of NH3 in solution is normally specified in terms of the specific gravity (degrees Baum′e, °Be). Common concentrations are 20 °Be and 26 °Be. The former is equivalent to a sp gr of 0.933, or a concentration of about 17.8% NH3 in solution; the latter is equivalent to a sp gr of 0.897, or a concentration of about 29.4% NH3. These figures apply at a temperature of 60 °F (15.6 °C). Reagent grade NH4OH usually contains approximately 58% NH4OH (from 28 to 30% NH3 in solution).
  • Verwenden Ammonium hydroxide is used as a cleaning agent and sanitizer in many household and industrial cleaners. Ammonium hydroxide is also used in the manufacture of products such as fertilizer, plastic, rayon and rubber. Aqueous ammonia is corrosive to aluminum alloys, copper, copper alloys, and galvanized surfaces. Aqueous ammonia is an excellent acid neutralizer.
  • Verwenden Ammonium hydroxide is widely utilized as a leavening agent or acidity regulator in food production. It serves as a precursor to some alkyl amines and is also used in the tobacco industry for flavor enhancement and as a processing aid. During furniture making, it combines with tannic acid and is used to darken or stain wood by making it iron salts. In chemical laboratories, it used for qualitative inorganic analysis, as a complexant and as a base. It is used to clean gold, silve, and platinum jewelry. It is an active component of Tollens' reagent (consisting of a solution of silver nitrate and ammonia) and is used to determine the presence of aldehyde or alpha-hydroxy ketone functional groups.
  • Verwenden Ammonium Hydroxide is an alkaline that is a clear, colorless solu- tion of ammonia which is used as a leavening agent, a ph control agent, and a surface finishing agent. it is used in baked goods, cheese, puddings, processed fruits, and in the production of caramels.
  • Definition Ammonium hydroxide,NH40H, is a hydrate of anunonia and exists in crystalline form at -79°C. Normally, it is only found in an aqueous solution also known as aquaanunonia and anunonia water. It is prepared by dissolving NH3 inH20. Reagent grade anunonium hydroxide contains from 28 to 30% NH3 at 15.6 °C. Industrial sales specify the concentration of NH3 in solution in terms of specific gravity. Common concentrations are 20 °Be, which would bea concentration of 17.8% NH3 (specific gravity 0.933) and 26 °Be (specific gravity 0.897), or a concentration of 29.4% NH3. Ammonium hydroxide is an excellent medium for the reaction of NH3 (which becomes the NH4 radical in solution) with other compounds for the preparation of anunonium salts and other nitrogen-containing chemicals. It is an ingredientin deodorants, etching compounds, and cleaning and bleaching materials. Ammoniumhydroxide, as aqua ammonia, finds wide use as a neutralizing agent,because it is inexpensive and strongly alkaline.
  • Application
    Industry
    Application
    Role/benefit
    Food processing
    Baked goods, cheeses, chocolates, other confectionery (e.g., caramel), and puddings
    Leavening agent, pH control agent and surface-finishing agent/safe and weakly alkaline
    Meat products
    Antimicrobial agent/ lowers the acidity of meet, making it difficult for pathogens to survive
    Cleaning
    Household and industrial cleansers
    Cleansing ingredient/ helps to kill microbial agents like bacteria
    Alkaline disinfectant
    Main ingredient/disinfects sarin
    Agriculture
    Manufacture of fertilizers
    Source of nitrogen
    Chemical manufacture
    Manufacture of alkyl amine
    Precursor/source of amino
    Cosmetics
    Hair dyes and colors
    pH adjusters/alkaline and safe
    Chemical analysis
    Determination of certain elements such as copper and nickel
    Precipitant/ helps to precipitate various elements
    Organic synthesis
    Amide coupling reactions
    Reagent/source of NH3
    SNAr reactions
    Nucleophile
    Catalytic reduction of nitriles
    Additive
    Others
    Wood staining
    Stain agent/better for the wood containing tannic acids
    Circuit board manufacturing
    Etching agent/has high alkalinity which makes it very corrosive to certain metals
    Tobacco processing
    Processing aid/enhances tobacco flavor
    Treatment of straw for cattle
    Produce "ammoniated straw" which is more edible for cattle
    Coagulation of natural rubber latex
    pH adjusters/helps to stabilize the natural rubber lattices
     
  • Allgemeine Beschreibung Ammonium hydroxide is a colorless aqueous solution. Concentration of ammonia ranges up to approximately 30%. Ammonia vapors (which arise from the solution) irritate the eyes.
  • Air & Water Reaktionen Water soluble. Generates a small amount of heat when diluted with water.
  • Reaktivität anzeigen Ammonium hydroxide reacts exothermically with acids. Evolves toxic gaseous ammonia with strong bases. Reacts extremely violently with dimethyl sulfate [NFPA 491M 1991]. Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate sodium hydroxide to give a black precipitate of silver nitride. Such a precipitate can explode on stirring [MCA Case History 1554 1968]. Aqueous ammonia and Hg react to form an explosive solid, likely a fulminate. (Thodos, G. Amer. Inst. Chen. Engrs. J., 1964, 10, 274.).
  • Hazard Liquid and vapor extremely irritating, especially to eyes.
  • Health Hazard Ammonium hydroxide solutions are alkaline solutions, meaning they have high pH level. As a result, ammonium hydroxide is a severe eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritant, and readily burns tissue with which it comes in contact. Splashes to the eye may be serious, as contact may cause severe burns, irritation pain and possibly blindness. Direct contact with skin may cause severe burns if the chemical is not quickly rinsed away with copious amounts of water. Inhaling mists of ammonium hydroxide may result in irritation of the nose and throat with symptoms including burning, coughing, choking and pain. Inhaling concentrated mist may result in pulmonary edema and shock. Ingesting ammonium hydroxide may cause pain and burns of the esophagus and gastrointestinal tract.
    TOXIC; inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with material may cause severe injury or death. Contact with molten substance may cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Avoid any skin contact. Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may be corrosive and/or toxic and cause pollution.
  • Brandgefahr Non-combustible, substance itself does not burn but may decompose upon heating to produce corrosive and/or toxic fumes. Some are oxidizers and may ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Contact with metals may evolve flammable hydrogen gas. Containers may explode when heated.
  • Flammability and Explosibility Ammonia vapor is slightly flammable (NFPA rating = 1) and ignites only with difficulty. Ammonia forms explosive mixtures with air in the range 16 to 25%. Water, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for ammonia fires.
  • Landwirtschaftliche Anwendung Ammonium hydroxide is also known as ammonia solution, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia or ammonia liquor. It is the solution of ammonia in water and is commonly referred to as ammonium hydroxide. It is the simplest nitrogen solution made by forcing compressed ammonia (anhydrous ammonia) gas into water.
  • Sicherheitsprofil A human poison by ingestion. An experimental poison by inhalation and ingestion. A severe eye irritant. Human systemic irritant effects by ocular and inhalation routes. Mutation data reported. Incompatible with acrolein, nitromethane, acrylic acid, chlorosulfonic acid, dimethyl sulfate, halogens, (Au + aqua regia), HCl, HF, HNO3, oleum, ppropiolactone, propylene oxide, AgNO3, Ag2O, (Ag20 + C2H5OH), AgMn04, H2SO4. Dangerous; liquid can inflict burns. Use with adequate ventilation. When heated to decomposition it emits NH3 and NO2.
  • mögliche Exposition It is used in detergents, stain removers, bleaches, dyes, fibers, and resins.
  • Lager All work with this substance should be conducted in a fume hood to prevent exposure by inhalation, and splash goggles and impermeable gloves should be worn at all times to prevent eye and skin contact.
    Containers should be tightly sealed to prevent escape of vapor and should be stored in a cool area separate from halogens, acids, and oxidizers. Containers stored in warm locations may build up dangerous internal pressures of ammonia gas.
  • Versand/Shipping UN2672 Ammonia solutions, relative density between 0.880 and 0.957 at 15 C in water, with .10% but not .35% ammonia, Hazard class: 8; Labels: 8-Corrosive material.
  • Inkompatibilitäten Solution is strongly alkaline. Violent reaction with strong oxidizers, acids (exothermic reaction with strong mineral acids). Shock-sensitive compounds may be formed with halogens, mercury oxide; silver oxide. Fire and explosions may be caused by contact with β-propiolactone, silver nitrate; ethyl alcoho; silver permanganate; trimethylammonium amide; 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, o-chloronitrobenzene, platinum, trioxygen difluoride; selenium difluoride dioxide; boron halides; mercury, chlorine, iodine; bromine, hypochlorites, chlorine bleach; amides, organic anhydrides; isocyanates, vinyl acetate; alkylene oxides; epichlorohydrin; aldehydes. Attacks some coatings, plastics and rubber. Attacks copper, brass, bronze, aluminum, steel, zinc, and their alloys.
  • Waste disposal Dilute with water, neutralize with HCl and discharge to sewer.
Ammonium hydroxide Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
Upstream-Materialien
Downstream Produkte
Ammoniak, wssrige Lsung Anbieter Lieferant Produzent Hersteller Vertrieb Händler.
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