Englisch Name:Hydrochloric acid
Hydrogenchlorid physikalisch-chemischer Eigenschaften
|Siedepunkt||>100 °C (lit.)|
|Dichte||1.2 g/mL at 25 °C (lit.)|
|Dampfdichte||1.3 (vs air)|
|Dampfdruck||613 psi ( 21.1 °C)|
|Flammpunkt||10℃ (tag closed test)|
|storage temp.||Store at +2°C to +25°C.|
|Geruch (Odor)||Sharp, irritating odor detectable at 0.25 to 10 ppm|
|PH||3.01(1 mM solution);2.04(10 mM solution);1.08(100 mM solution);|
|Sensitive||Air & Light Sensitive|
|Expositionsgrenzwerte||Ceiling limit 5 ppm (～ 7 mg/m3).|
|Stabilität||Stable. Incompatible with alkalies, most metals. Avoid contact with water.|
|CAS Datenbank||7647-01-0(CAS DataBase Reference)|
|NIST chemische Informationen||Hydrogen chloride(7647-01-0)|
|IARC||3 (Vol. 54) 1992|
|EPA chemische Informationen||Hydrochloric acid (7647-01-0)|
|RIDADR||UN 2924 3/PG 2|
|HS Code||2806 10 00|
|DOT Classification||2.3, Hazard Zone C (Gas poisonous by inhalation)|
|Giftige Stoffe Daten||7647-01-0(Hazardous Substances Data)|
|Toxizität||LC50 (30 min) in mice, rats: 2142, 5666 ppm (Darmer)|
H290：Kann gegenüber Metallen korrosiv sein.
P234：Nur im Originalbehälter aufbewahren.
P390：Verschüttete Mengen aufnehmen, um Materialschäden zu vermeiden.
Hydrochloric acid Chemische Eigenschaften,Einsatz,Produktion Methoden
ERSCHEINUNGSBILDFARBLOSES KOMPRIMIERTES FLüSSIGGAS MIT STECHENDEM GERUCH.
PHYSIKALISCHE GEFAHRENDas Gas ist schwerer als Luft.
CHEMISCHE GEFAHRENStarke Säure in wässriger Lösung. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Basen. ätzend. Reagiert sehr heftig mit Oxidationsmitteln. Greift viele Metalle in Gegenwart von Wasser an unter Bildung von brennbarem Gas (Wasserstoff, s.ICSC-Nr. 0001).
ARBEITSPLATZGRENZWERTETLV: 2 ppm; (als STEL, ceiling); Krebskategorie A4 (nicht klassifizierbar als krebserzeugend für den Menschen); (ACGIH 2005).
MAK: 2 ppm 3,0 mg/m?Spitzenbegrenzung: überschreitungsfaktor I(2); Schwangerschaft: Gruppe C; (DFG 2005).
AUFNAHMEWEGEAufnahme in den Körper durch Inhalation.
INHALATIONSGEFAHRENEine gesundheitsschädliche Konzentration des Gases in der Luft wird beim Entweichen aus dem Behälter sehr schnell erreicht.
WIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITIONWIRKUNGEN BEI KURZZEITEXPOSITION:
Schnelle Verdampfung kann zu Erfrierungen führen. Das Gas verätzt die Augen, die Haut und die Atemwege. Inhalation hoher Gaskonzentrationen kann zu Lungenentzündung und Lungenödem mit nachfolgendem Reaktivem Atemwegsfunktionsstörungssyndrom (RADS) führen (s.Anm.). Die Auswirkungen treten u.U. verzögert ein. ärztliche Beobachtung notwendig.
WIRKUNGEN NACH WIEDERHOLTER ODER LANGZEITEXPOSITIONMöglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Lunge. Führt zu chronischer Bronchitis. Möglich sind Auswirkungen auf die Zähne mit nachfolgenden Zahnerosionen.
LECKAGEGefahrenbereich verlassen! Fachmann zu Rate ziehen! Belüftung. Gas mit feinem Wassersprühstrahl niederschlagen. Persönliche Schutzausrüstung: Vollschutzanzug mit umgebungsluftunabhängigem Atemschutzgerät.
R-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:R36/37/38:Reizt die Augen, die Atmungsorgane und die Haut.
R37:Reizt die Atmungsorgane.
R35:Verursacht schwere Verätzungen.
R23:Giftig beim Einatmen.
R20:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen.
R67:Dämpfe können Schläfrigkeit und Benommenheit verursachen.
R66:Wiederholter Kontakt kann zu spröder oder rissiger Haut führen.
R22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Verschlucken.
R19:Kann explosionsfähige Peroxide bilden.
R40:Verdacht auf krebserzeugende Wirkung.
R20/22:Gesundheitsschädlich beim Einatmen und Verschlucken.
S-Sätze Betriebsanweisung:S26:Bei Berührung mit den Augen sofort gründlich mit Wasser abspülen und Arzt konsultieren.
S45:Bei Unfall oder Unwohlsein sofort Arzt zuziehen (wenn möglich, dieses Etikett vorzeigen).
S36/37/39:Bei der Arbeit geeignete Schutzkleidung,Schutzhandschuhe und Schutzbrille/Gesichtsschutz tragen.
S9:Behälter an einem gut gelüfteten Ort aufbewahren.
S33:Maßnahmen gegen elektrostatische Aufladungen treffen.
S29:Nicht in die Kanalisation gelangen lassen.
S16:Von Zündquellen fernhalten - Nicht rauchen.
S46:Bei Verschlucken sofort ärztlichen Rat einholen und Verpackung oder Etikett vorzeigen.
BeschreibungA water solution of hydrogen chloride of varied concentrations. It is a clear, colorless or slightly yellowish, corrosive liquid having a pungent odor. It is miscible with water and with alcohol. Concentrations of hydrochloric acid are expressed in percent by weight, or may be expressed in Baume degrees (Be0) from which percentages of hydrochloric acid and specific gravities may readily be derived. The usually available concentrations are 18°, 20°, 22°, and 23° Be. Concentrations above 13° Be (19.6%) fume in moist air, lose hydrogen chloride, and create a corrosive atmosphere. Because of these characteristics, suitable precautions must be observed during sampling and analysis to prevent losses. Note: Hydrochloric acid is produced by various methods that might impart trace amounts of organic compounds as impurities. The manufacturer, vendor, or user is responsible for identifying the specific organic compounds that are present and for meeting the requirements for organic compounds. Methods are provided for their determination. In applying the procedures any necessary standards should be used to quantitate the organic compounds present in each specific product.
Chemische EigenschaftenHydrochloric acid occurs as a clear, colorless, fuming aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, with a pungent odor.
The JP XV specifies that hydrochloric acid contains 35.0–38.0% w/w of HCl; the PhEur 6.0 specifies that hydrochloric acid contains 35.0–39.0% w/w of HCl; and the USP32–NF27 specifies that hydrochloric acid contains 36.5–38.0% w/w of HCl.
Chemische EigenschaftenHydrogen chloride, HCl, is a colorless, fuming, highly toxic gas that is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It is used in polymerization, isomerization, and the synthesis of vinyl chloride and alkyl chloride.
Chemische EigenschaftenHydrochloric acid, or hydrogen chloride, is either a colorless liquid with a pungent odor, or a colorless to slightly yellow gas that can be shipped as a liquefi ed compressed gas. The acid is used in the production of fertilizers, dyes, dyestuffs, artifi cial silk, and paint pig- ments, and in refi ning edible oils and fats. Hydrochloric acid is also used in electroplating, leather tanning, ore refi ning, soap refi ning, petroleum extraction, and pickling of metals, and is used in the photographic, textile, and rubber industries. In addition, hydrochloric acid is used as an antiseptic in toilet bowls against animal pathogenic bacteria, and in food processing as a starch modifi er.
Physikalische EigenschaftenColorless gas; sharp pungent odor; fumes in air; nonflammable; refractiveindex of gas at 0°C 1.000446; density of the gas 1.639 g/L (1.268 times heav-ier than air); density of liquid at -155°C 1.045 g/cm3; density of solid at-192°C 1.507 g/cm3; liquefies at -85.05°C to a colorless liquid; freezes to awhite crystalline solid at -114.22°C; critical temperature 51.55°C; criticalpressure 82.01 atm; critical volume 81 cm3/mol; triple point -114.25°C; dielec-tric constant at 25°C 1.0046; electrical conductivity 35.0 micromho/cm at-87.6°C; highly soluble in water 42.02 g/100 g solution (or 72.47 g/100 g water)at 20°C and 1 atm; soluble in alcohols and ethers (47.0 g and 24.9 g/100 g solu-tion at 20°C in methanol and ether, respectively.)
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless to yellowish liquid (the yellow colorationmay be due to traces of iron, chlorine or organics contaminants); fumes in air;refractive index of 1.0 N solution 1.3417; density of commercial concentratedacid (37.8 g/100g solution) 1.19 g/mL, and constant boiling solution (20.22g/100g solution) 1.096 g/mL at 25°C; forms a constant boiling azeotrope withwater at HCl concentration 20.22%; the azeotrope boils at 108.6°C; severalmetal chlorides can be salted out of their aqueous solutions by addition ofHCl; the addition of CaCl2can break the azeotrope; the pH of the acid at 1.0,0.1 and 0.01 N concentrations are 0.10, 1.1, and 2.02, respectively; a 10.0 Msolution ionizes to 92.6% at 18°C.
HistoryHydrochloric acid is a strong, corrosive acid that results when the gas hydrogen chloride dissolves in water.Ancient alchemists prepared hydrochloric acid and Jabbar ibn Hayyan, known in Latin as Geber (721–815), is credited with its discovery around the year 800. The original method of preparation involved reacting salt with sulfuric acid, producing sodium hydrogen sulfate and hydrogen chloride gas. The hydrogen chloride gas is captured and dissolved in water to produce hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric acid was formerly called muriatic acid. Terms such as muriatic and muriate were used in association with chloride substances before the discovery and nature of chlorine were fully understood. The Latin term muriaticus means pickled from muri, which is the Latin term for brine. Chlorides were naturally associated with seawater salt solutions, as chloride is the principal ion in seawater.
VerwendenPickling is a metal treatment process used to prepare metal surfaces for subsequent processing such as galvanizing or extrusion. In the iron industry, pickling involves immersing iron and steel products in vats of diluted hydrochloric acid. This removes oxides, dirt, and grease. Oil well acidizing involves injecting hydrochloric acid down well holes to dissolve limestone and carbonate formations. This expands existing fissures and creates new fissures to open channels for oil extraction.
Hydrochloric acid is also used extensively in pharmaceuticals and the food industry. When it is listed after a drug name, the drug was produced by combining a free base and hydrochloric acid to produce a hydrochloride salt. Drugs delivered as hydrochloride salts rather than free bases are more soluble in water than free forms of the drugs, tend to be more stable, are solids, and are often more compatible with the chemistry of the digestive system. In the food industry it is used in the production of gelatin and sodium glutamate, to convert cornstarch to syrup, to refine sugar, and as an acidulant.
VerwendenHydrochloric acid is one of the most widely used acids and a common laboratory reagent. It is used in the manufacture of chlorides, in the pickling and cleaning of metal products, as a processing agent for manufacturing various food products, as a cleaning agent, in organic synthesis, and for neutralizing alkalies.
Hydrogen chloride is a fire-effluent gas.Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of HCl (Brandt-Raufet al. 1988). Large amounts of HCl arereleased from the oxidative thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-derivedfiberglass, cotton, and jute brattices in mines.At 250°C (482°F) its concentration is foundto be >5 ppm (De Rosa and Litton 1986).The gas is absorbed by water droplets,entrapped in soot particles, causing risk ofexposure of the acid to the eyes, throat,and lungs of mine workers. Stack emissionsof HCl can result from burning plastic-richwastes (e.g., hospital wastes) (Powell 1987).Emissions of 1.0–1.6 g HCl/kg waste havebeen reported (Allen et al. 1986)..
VerwendenIn the production of chlorides; refining ore in the production of tin and tantalum; for the neutralization of basic systems; as laboratory reagent; hydrolyzing of starch and proteins in the preparation of various food products; pickling and cleaning of metal products; as catalyst and solvent in organic syntheses. Also used for oil- and gas-well treament and in removing scale from boilers and heat-exchange equipment. Pharmaceutic aid (acidifier).
VerwendenHydrochloric Acid is an acid that is the aqueous solution of hydro- gen chloride of varying concentrations. it is miscible with water and with alcohol. it is used as an acidulant and neutralizing agent.
Vorbereitung MethodeThe traditional method of preparation of hydrochloric acid is the reaction of metal chlorides, especially sodium chloride with sulfuric acid (see the first reaction described). Hydrochloric acid is also produced by direct synthesis from its elements. In the chlorine-alkali industry, electrochemical reactions produce elemental chlorine and hydrogen, which can then be combined to give hydrogen chloride: Cl2(g) + H2(g) 2HCl(g). Hydrogen chloride is then dissolved in water to produce hydrochloric acid. By far, the most common method of producing hydrochloric acid involves its production as a by-product in chlorination reactions. This has curtailed this source of hydrochloric acid. The production of other common industrial organic chemicals such as Teflon, perchloroethylene, and polyvinyl chloride result in the production of hydrogen chloride. The production of hydrochloric acid in polyvinyl chloride production takes place when ethylene is chlorinated: C2H4(g) + Cl2(g) C2H4Cl2(g) C2H4Cl2(g)(g) C2H3Cl(g) + HCl(g).
DefinitionA colorless fuming liquid made by adding hydrogen chloride to water:
HCl(g) + H2O1. → H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Dissociation into ions is extensive and hydrochloric acid shows the typical properties of a strong acid. It reacts with carbonates to give carbon dioxide and yields hydrogen when reacted with all but the most unreactive metals. Hydrochloric acid is used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, and photographic materials. It is also used to pickle metals, i.e. clean the surface prior to electroplating. Hydrochloric acid donates protons with ease and is the strongest of the hydrohalic acids. The concentrated acid is oxidized to chlorine by such agents as potassium manganate(VII) and manganese( IV) oxide.
Vorbereitung MethodeHydrochloric acid is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas produced by a number of methods including: the reaction of sodium chloride and sulfuric acid; the constituent elements; as a by-product from the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide; and as a by-product during the chlorination of hydrocarbons.
Definitionhydrogen chloride: A colourlessfuming gas, HCl; m.p. –114.8°C; b.p.–85°C. It can be prepared in the laboratoryby heating sodium chloridewith concentrated sulphuric acid(hence the former name spirits ofsalt). Industrially it is made directlyfrom the elements at high temperatureand used in the manufacture ofPVC and other chloro compounds. Itis a strong acid and dissociates fullyin solution (hydrochloric acid).
DefinitionChEBI: A mononuclear parent hydride consisting of covalently bonded hydrogen and chlorine atoms.
Air & Water ReaktionenFumes strongly in moist air. Soluble in water with evolution of heat.
Reaktivität anzeigenANHYDROUS HYDROGEN CHLORIDE is an anhydrous (no water) strong acid. Reacts rapidly and exothermically with bases of all kinds (including amines and amides). Reacts exothermically with carbonates (including limestone and building materials containing limestone) and hydrogen carbonates to generate carbon dioxide. Reacts with sulfides, carbides, borides, and phosphides to generate toxic or flammable gases. Reacts with many metals (including aluminum, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, tin and all of the alkali metals) to generate flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, calcium phosphide, chlorosulfonic acid, 1,1-difluoroethylene, ethylenediamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, perchloric acid, b-propiolactone, propylene oxide, silver perchlorate/carbon tetrachloride mixture, sodium hydroxide, uranium(IV) phosphide, vinyl acetate, calcium carbide, rubidium carbide, cesium acetylide, rubidium acetylide, magnesium boride, mercury(II) sulfate [Lewis]. Undergoes a very energetic reaction with calcium phosphide [Mellor 8:841(1946-1947)]. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Corrodes galvanized or copper-alloy metals (brass, bronze); fittings of stainless steel or mild or cast steel must therefore be used. Reacts with calcium carbide with incandescence [Mellor 5:862(1946-1947]. Absorption on mercuric sulfate becomes violent at 125°C. [Mellor 2, Supp. 1:462(1956)].
HazardToxic by inhalation, strong irritant to eyes and skin. Questionable carcinogen.
Health HazardGas concentrations of 50 to 100 ppm are tolerable for 1 hour. Concentrations of 1,000 to 2,000 ppm are dangerous, even for brief exposures. More severe exposures will result in serious respiratory distress and prolonged exposures will result in death. Mists of hydrochloric acid are considered less harmful than anhydrous hydrochloric acid, because droplets have no dehydrating action. Individuals with respiratory problems and digestive diseases may be adversely affected by low level exposures to the gas or mist.
Health HazardConcentrated hydrochloric acid is a corrosivesubstance that can cause severe burns.Spilling into the eyes can damage vision.Ingestion can produce corrosion of themouth, gastrointestinal tract, and stomach,and diarrhea.
Hydrogen chloride is a toxic gas with acharacteristic pungent odor. Inhalation cancause coughing, choking, and irritation ofthe mucous membranes. Exposure to concentrations at >5 ppm in air can be irritating and disagreeable to humans (Patty 1963;ACGIH 1986). A short exposure to 50 ppmmay cause irritation of the throat. Workersexposed to hydrochloric acid were found tosuffer from gastritis and chronic bronchitis(Fairhall 1957).
Rats exposed continuously to a hydrogen chloride atmosphere died after physicalincapacitation (Crane et al. 1985). Hartzelland coworkers (1987) have studied thetoxicological effects of smoke containinghydrogen chloride in fire gases. The lethality of PVC smoke was high but not entirelydue to the hydrogen chloride produced. Postexposure death in rats was observed afterpulmonary irritation caused by high concentration of HCl. Lethality in the presenceof carbon monoxide may be additive. Inanother paper, Hartzell and associates (1988)reported that guinea pigs were three timesas sensitive as rats to HCl exposure. HClproduced bronchoconstriction in animals andshowed additive toxicity with CO at relatively high concentrations of the latter.
Health HazardExposures to hydrochloric acid cause severe health effects and corrosive reactions. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (fuming hydrochloric acid) forms acidic mists. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, with the potential to damage the respiratory organs, eyes, skin, and intestines. Inhalation of vapors can cause coughing, choking, infl ammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory failure, and death. Accidental ingestion and/or swallow- ing of hydrochloric acid at workplaces causes immediate pain and burns of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and gastrointestinal tract. It also causes nausea, vomiting, and diar- rhea, and in severe cases, death. Any kind of contact of the skin surfaces to hydrochloric acid causes redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Concentrated solutions of hydrochloric acid cause deep ulcers and discolor the skin. Vapors of hydrochloric acid cause irritat- ing effects to the eyes and eye damage, leading to severe burns and permanent eye dam- age. Long-term exposures to concentrated vapors of hydrochloric acid cause erosion of the teeth. Occupational workers and persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye disease are more susceptible to the effects of hydrochloric acid.
Health HazardHydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride gas are highly corrosive substances that may cause severe burns upon contact with any body tissue. The aqueous acid and gas are strong eye irritants and lacrimators. Contact of conc hydrochloric acid or concentrated HCl vapor with the eyes may cause severe injury, resulting in permanent impairment of vision and possible blindness, and skin contact results in severe burns. Ingestion can cause severe burns of the mouth, throat, and gastrointestinal system and can be fatal. Inhalation of hydrogen chloride gas can cause severe irritation and injury to the upper respiratory tract and lungs, and exposure to high concentrations may cause death. HCl gas is regarded as having adequate warning properties
Hydrogen chloride has not been found to be carcinogenic or to show reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans
BrandgefahrNoncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.
BrandgefahrFire may produce irritating or poisonous gases. Containers may explode in heat of fire. At high temperatures, Hydrochloric acid decomposes into hydrogen and chlorine. The following materials should be avoided: Mercuric sulfate -- violent reaction with gaseous hydrochloric acid at 250F. Sodium -- reacts vigorously with gaseous hydrochloric acid. Acetic anhydride, 2-aminoethanol, ammonium hydroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, ethylene diamine, ethyleneimine, oleum, propiolactone, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, and vinyl acetate -- increase in temperature and pressure when mixed with hydrochloric acid. Calcium phosphide -- energetic reaction with hydrochloric acid. Silver perchlorate and carbon tetrachloride -- when mixed in combination with hydrochloric acid forms a compound that detonates at 105F. Formaldehyde -- when mixed with hydrochloric acid forms a human carcinogen. Material reacts violently with bases and is corrosive with the generation of heat. Reacts with base metals, forming combustible gas (hydrogen). Reacts violently with strong oxidants forming toxic gas (chlorine). Avoid heat; at high temperatures Hydrochloric acid will decompose into hydrogen and chlorine.
Flammability and ExplosibilityNoncombustible, but contact with metals may produce highly flammable hydrogen gas.
Pharmazeutische AnwendungenHydrochloric acid is widely used as an acidifying agent, in a variety of pharmaceutical and food preparations. It may also be used to prepare dilute hydrochloric acid, which in addition to its use as an excipient has some therapeutic use, intravenously in the management of metabolic alkalosis, and orally for the treatment of achlorhydria.
Industrielle VerwendungHydrochloric acid (HCl) is soluble in water andis a strong mineral acid made by the action ofsulfuric acid on common salt, or as a byproductof the chlorination of hydrocarbons such asbenzene.HCl is used to some extent in pickling of metal prior to porcelain enameling.
Industrielle VerwendungHydrochloric acid (HCl) is a highly corrosive liquid, emitting a pungent odor and fumes in moist air. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is one of the strongest acids and thus any desired pH from 0 to 7 can be easily achieved with the required dosage. Hydrochloric acid is seldom used in mineral flotation. The largest use is in hydrometallurgical processes and the pickling of hot rolled steel. In some cases, hydrochloric acid is used for decoating iron-stained mineral surfaces before flotation.
Materials UsesPiping, valves, and other equipment used in direct contact with anhydrous hydrogen chloride should be of stainless steel or of cast or mild steel. Carbon steel may be used in some components, but only if their temperature is controlled to remain below about 265°F (l29°C). In the presence of moisture, however, hydrogen chloride will corrode most metals. Teflon, Kel F and Hastelloy will resist corrosion.
Smaller sized valves, such as those used on cylinders, constructed of aluminum-siliconbronze with Monel stems have had satisfactory service experience due to frequent maintenance. The satisfactory extension of these materials to other applications should be confirmed by testing prior to use.
Sicherheit(Safety)When used diluted, at low concentration, hydrochloric acid is not usually associated with any adverse effects. However, the concentrated solution is corrosive and can cause severe damage on contact with the eyes and skin, or if ingested.
LD50 (mouse, IP): 1.4 g/kg
LD50 (rabbit, oral): 0.9 g/kg
Physiological effectsACGIH recommends a Threshold Limit ValueCeiling (TLV-C) of 5 ppm (7.5 mg/m3) for hydrogen chloride. The TLV-C is the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure.
OSHA lists a Ceiling Value of 5 ppm (7 mg/m3) for hydrogen chloride. The Ceiling Value is the exposure limit that shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the ceiling shall be assessed as a I5-minute TWA exposure that shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day .
LagerSplash goggles and rubber gloves should be worn when handling this acid, and containers of HCl should be stored in a wellventilated location separated from incompatible metals. Water should never be added to HCl because splattering may result; always add acid to water. Containers of hydrochloric acid should be stored in secondary plastic trays to avoid corrosion of metal storage shelves due to drips or spills.
Cylinders of hydrogen chloride should be stored in cool, dry locations separated from alkali metals and other incompatible substances.
LagerHydrochloric acid should be stored in a well-closed, glass or other inert container at a temperature below 30°C. Storage in close proximity to concentrated alkalis, metals, and cyanides should be avoided.
läuterung methodePass it through conc H2SO4, then over activated charcoal and silica gel. It fumes in moist air. Hydrogen chloride in gas cylinders contains ethylene, 1,1-dichloroethane and ethyl chloride. The latter two may be removed by fractionating the HCl through a trap cooled to -112o. Ethylene is difficult to remove. HCl fumes in moist air. HARMFUL VAPOURS. Its solubility in H2O is 82% at 0o. A constant boiling aqueous solution (azeotrope) has b 108.6o/760mm with an HCl concentration of ~20%, and is called Hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) (see above). [Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry (Ed. Brauer) Academic Press Vol I pp 280-282 1963.]
Toxicity evaluationHCl causes local pH changes and denatures proteins. This leads to edema formation and tissue necrosis. HCl produces a coagulation necrosis characterized by the formation of a scar. Ingested HCl may give rise to damage of the esophagus and stomach. Gastric damage may occur secondary to pooling of HCl in the antrum as a result of pylorospasm. Patients who survive ingestions of HCl may develop stricture formation, gastric atony, and gastric outlet obstruction. When inhaled, HCl typically deposits in the upper respiratory tract and causes damage. Concentrated HCl can penetrate to the level of the bronchioles and alveoli and cause subsequent damage to these regions.
InkompatibilitätenHydrochloric acid reacts violently with alkalis, with the evolution of a large amount of heat. Hydrochloric acid also reacts with many metals, liberating hydrogen.
InkompatibilitätenHydrochloric acid and hydrogen chloride react violently with many metals, with the generation of highly flammable hydrogen gas, which may explode. Reaction with oxidizers such as permanganates, chlorates, chlorites, and hypochlorites may produce chlorine or bromine.
Waste disposalIn many localities, hydrochloric acid or the residue from a spill may be disposed of down the drain after appropriate dilution and neutralization. Otherwise, hydrochloric acid and waste material containing this substance should be placed in an appropriate container, clearly labeled, and handled according to your institution's waste disposal guidelines. Excess hydrogen chloride in cylinders should be returned to the manufacturer. For more information on disposal procedures, see Chapter 7 of this volume.
Regulatory StatusGRAS listed. Accepted for use as a food additive in Europe. Included in the FDA Inactive Ingredients Database (dental solutions; epidural injections; IM, IV, and SC injections; inhalations; ophthalmic preparations; oral solutions; nasal, otic, rectal, and topical preparations). Included in parenteral and nonparenteral medicines licensed in the UK. Included in the Canadian List of Acceptable Non-medicinal Ingredients.
GRADES AVAILABLEAnhydrous hydrogen chloride is typically available for commercial and industrial purposes in a technical grade (minimum purity of 99.0 percent).
Hydrochloric acid Upstream-Materialien And Downstream Produkte
7647-01-0, Hydrochloric acid Verwandte Suche:
- ACETIC ACID